Chapter 4 - The Spread of Islam

Abu Bakr

one of Muhammad's first converts that was chosen to be the next leader of Islam. By his death he made Arabia a unified Muslim state.

caliph

a title that Mulsims use for the highest leader of Islam

tolerance

acceptance

Janissaries

slave soldiers that converted to Islam and became fierce fighters

Mehmed II

leader of the Ottomons in 1453 who conquered Constantinople, renamed it Istanbul and made it his new capital. He is known as "the Conqueror.

sultan

an Ottoman ruler

Suleyman I "The Magnificent

leader at the height of the Ottoman Empire. Under his rule the Ottomans took control of the eastern Mediterranean and pushed into Europe, ruled during the Golden Period

harem

a special area in a household where women lived apart from men

Shia

Muslims who thought only members of Muhammad's family could become caliphs

Sunni

Muslims who don't think that caliphs had to be related to Muhammad as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders.

Ibn Battutah

traveled to Africa, India, China, and Spain in the 1320s., Muslim explorer and writer

Sufism

a spiritual movement that teaches that people can find God's love by having a personal relationship with God, Muslim Sufi Mystics believed that the soul was in exile from God and longed to return. Loving god was key. Like the bhaktis, Sufis rejected the f

Omar Khayyam

a famous Sufi poet that wrote about faith, hope and other emotions

patrons

sponsors who give money to support things like art, architecture, education, etc.

minaret

a narrow tower from which Muslims are called to prayer

calligraphy

decorative writing

al-Idrisi

a Muslim geographer who collected information from Arab travelers and wrote a georgraphy book. He sent trained geographers to collect information about locations.

al-Khwariizmi

Muslim mathematician who wrote the first algebra textbook

Ibn-Sina

Muslim doctor who write a medical encyclopedia that was used throughout Europe until the 1600s

Umar

One of the 1st four caliphs. Friend of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to Syria, Egypt, and Persia; redesigned government; paid soldiers; held a census; made taxes more fair; built roads & canals; aided poor

Ottoman Empire

Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.

Tariq

Berber general who led a Muslim army across the Mediterranean and conquered Spain

Esfahan

Magnificent Safavid City in the 1600's, made hand woven carpets, silk and velvets, ceramics and metal goods were sent throughout the Safavid Empire

Safavid Empire

Persian Muslims, leader was the Shah, practiced Shia Islam, empire began under Es'mail

Es'mail

First Shah of the Safavid Empire

Abbas

Greatest Safavid Shah and leader, made great contributions to art and culture, glorified Esfahan, the great Safavid city

Akbar the Great

Conquered many new lands and worked to make the Mughal government stronger, tolerant religious policy, got rid of tax on non-Muslims, invited Hindus into government, unified empire, built Taj Mahal.

Babur

Mughal founder, name means "Tiger", first tried to build empire in Asia--settled for Northern India

Farsi

Safavid Language

Turkish

Ottoman Language

Hindu and Urdu

Mughal Language

Haij

pilgrimage to Mecca

Berbers

A member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt

Mughal Empire

(1526-1764) Muslim state founded by Babur (a descendant of Timur), which extended over India. Experienced prosperity, peace, and little outside threats under Akbar (1542-1605). For a while was an example of religious harmony between Muslim and Hindu relig

Great Mosque

In Cordoba, this used two levels of arches in a style unknown

Blue Mosque

Mosque built in the 1600s in the heart of Istanbul, represents high point of Ottoman achievement.

Shah

A Persian title that means "king

Cordoba

Jewel of Islamic Spain, tolerant of many religions (including the Jewish religion), richest city in Europe during "dark ages

Baghdad

Arab center of culture, capital of Islamic World in 762, richest city in world, located near water and trade routes, round city with three walls, souks outside walls

Battle of Tours

Stopped the spread of Islam into France and the rest of Western Europe, a win by the Christians over the Muslims

Cannons

created by Ottomans