History 2112 Exam 2

Eugenics

pseudo-science that advocated biological engineering and supported selective breeding of "desirable races

Sweatshops

cheap way to produce products

Triangle Shirt Waste Company

March 25th 1971 fire caused death of 146 garmet workers, who died from the fire, smoke inhalation or falling to deaths, were jewish and Italian immigrants ages 16 to 23, managers locked the doors to the stair wells and exits to prevent unauthorized breaks

Political Machine

functiones to give cities the centralized authority and services that they otherwise lacked

Boss

head of machine

Tenements

in slums; multiple family apartment buildings

Nativism

belief that foreigners pose serious threat to ones native society and culture

mutual aid societies

provide social welfare benefits

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

Settlement Houses

located in urban slums; offered daycare, cooking, sewing classes, counseling sessions

Social Gospel

A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

Muckraker

A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upto

Civil Housekeeping

Jane Addams encouraged women that they were trained in the matters of welfare and needed to build up in the traditional roles of housekeeping to be civic housekeepers

New Freedom

Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

Progressive Party

Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912.

Bully pulpit

a public office of sufficiently high rank that it provides the holder with an opportunity to speak out and be listened to on any matter

Hetchy Valley

reservoir in Cali; targeted for the development of water supply for irrigation

WCTU

opposed drinking because of its destructive effect on the family

NAACP

founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

Tuskegee Institute

Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper

Suffrages

the right to vote; didn't want men to fear the idea of women suffrage; should be expansion of household duties

Hull House

Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

Pragmatism

A distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems. The pragmatists thus embraced the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge.

Jingoists

nationalists who thought that a swaggering foreign policy and a willingness to go to war would enhance the nation's foreign policy

Cuba Libre

independent Cuba with greater social and racial equality

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble

Anti-Imperalist League

an organization established in the United States on June 15, 1898 to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. The anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, e

Big Stick

Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen

Roosevelt Corollary

(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Dollar Diplomacy

(WT) , President Taft's policy of building strong economic ties to Latin America. (Nicaragua, DR, Haiti, Virgin Islands)

Zimmerman Telegram

A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.

Espionage Act

1917 This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from

Sedition Act

1918 law that made it illegal to criticize the government

American Protective League

an American World War I-era private organization that worked with federal law enforcement agencies in support of the anti German Empire movement, as well as against radical anarchists, anti-war activists, and left-wing labor and political organizations.

Fourteen Points

A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.

League of Nations

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1

Red Scare

A social/political movement designed to prevent a socialist/communist/radical movement in this country by finding "radicals," incarcerating them, deporting them, and subverting their activities

Palmer Raids

A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities

Great Migration

(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

American Plan

Term that some U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. Demonstrated laissez-faire economics.

Teapot Dome Scandal

A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

Second Industrial Revolution

(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and r

New Woman

a woman of the turn of the 20th century often from the middle class who dressed practically, moved about freely, lived apart from her family, and supported herself

Lost Generation

Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe

New Negro

spirit of black racial pride and militany that set a younder generation of AA artists and civil rights leaders apart from their predecessors

Sacco and Vanzetti

were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime

National Origins Act

(CC) 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890. I

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.

Hoovervilles

Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress

Fireside Chats

The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.

New Deal

A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.

Agricultural Adjustment Act

(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural producti

Tennesse Valley Authority

Built dams that gave electricity; gave jobs, new dams, electricity, & encouraged businesses to invest there(TVA)

Social Security Act

(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

National Labor Relations

A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and to regulate labor-managment relations.

Court Packing

Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New

Conservative Coalition

An alliance of Republicans and southern Democrats that can form in the House or the Senate to oppose liberal legislation and support conservative legislation.

Fair Labor Standards Act

1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor

Indian Reorganization Act

1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.