Focus Questions

How did religions helpstrengthen political,economic, and cultural tieswithin societies?

It provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. Religion also made kings out as divine, usually.

How did religions promotea sense of unity?

They (religions) provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.

What are the characteristicsand core teachings ofJudaism?

Judaism teaches that there is only one God. That all people are equal, and that all people have a place in heaven if they lead a 'righteous' life here on earth.

What are the characteristicsand core teachings ofHinduism?

Core teachings: Karma, Moksha, and Dharma.

What is a "universal religion?" Where did universal religions exist by 600 CE.

A religion that appeals to everyone and one that spreads out to other religions to spread. they existed in China, India, South East Asia, Roman empire, Europe, Mediterranean, and North Africa.

What are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism?

The Four noble truths: teaches all life involves suffering.Noble Eight fold path, and Buddhist Dharma

How and where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE?

Spread throughout Asia first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Asoka, through the efforts of missionaries and merchants and the establishment of educational institutions.

What are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism?

Philosophical & ethical teachings based on Confucius beliefs.

What are the characteristicsand core teachings ofDaoism?

Balance between humans and nature .

What are the characteristicsand core teachings ofChristianity?

Monotheism and Judaism. Belief in Jesus Christ as the son of God and the Holy spirit.

How and where didChristianity spread by600 CE?

Spread through the efforts of Missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro- Eurasia.

What are the main characteristics of Greco- Roman Philosophy and science?

Love of WisdomRational Thinking-reason and Logicless emphasis on GodsMore emphasis on natural lawsApplied ideas of natural laws to social sciences - politics

How did religions affectgender roles in theirrespective societies?

It affected them by encouraging social order through males or equal roles between males and females.

What other religious andcultural traditions werecommon by 600 CE?

Shamanism, and animism. Traditions- Ancestor veneration

How did humans' relianceon the natural worldinfluence religion?

By

How did humans relate totheir deceased ancestors?

Through the tradition of Ancestor veneration.

How did art and culturedevelop to 600 CE?

It developed by religion. ex. Sculptures of gods.. Based on worldly needs and events. ex. Paintings of travel along the silk roads.

What literary worksinfluenced later eras?

Books of the New TestamentBon Gv- Book of the Han: History of the China during 206 BC to 25 AD

How did different societies'architectural stylesdevelop?

Environment factors, Natural resources available for building, ex. The Roman Empire built Thermae, a popular facility for public bathing (water was from a river or stream or by an aqueduct. Religion, Greece built temples. , and wealth Taj Mahal (India).

What examples of syncretism reflect the Classical Era to 600 CE?

Hellenisitic age-greeks influenced PersiaBuddhism- adopted Hindu beliefs Reincarnation souls released into Nirvana/Moksha

What is an "empire," and what were empires' common characteristics during the Classical Era?

An empire is an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority,formerly especially an emperor or empress. Common characteristics- long trade routes across land and coast line, levied taxes on subjected peoples, entered religion, threats from attacking barbarians, a system of central and local government to maintain order, and armies to defend borders and maintain peace.

How did the number & size of Classical empires compare to the Ancients Era?

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What were the most influential of the Classical Era empires?

The Roman,Persian,and Chinese empires were the most influential.

What techniques did Classical empires create to administer their territories?

China developed best communication lines throughout the kingdom- messages could easily sent and received.Rome built the greatest infrastructure, consisting of roads, aqueducts, and cities.

What new political methodswere created in order torule the larger empires inthe Classical Era?

Imperial administration based in part on success of earlier political forms.

How did imperial governments let their population know that the government was "in charge?

By using military power. Techniques --> diplomacy, developing supply lines, building fortification, defensive walls, and roads.

What role did trade play increating and maintaining empires?

To build and maintain roads and issuing currencies.

What unique social andeconomic characteristicsexisted in empires?

Rome: members of the senate had a higher social position than average citizenship. there was slaves. China: classes ranged from upper class, nobles, and scholars to farmers and artisans to the less respected merchants. Persian classes: kings and nobles of various regions, high class military leaders and clergy, then artisans, tradesmen, and peasants.

What function did imperialcities perform?

trade centerspublic religions centerspolitical administration centers- Rome, Shanghai, Pasargaed, Athens, Xian, Persepolis, Alexandria, and Chang 'an

What social classes andoccupations were commonin empires?

Emperor, governors, local and military officials, farmers and artisans.

What labor systemsprovided the workers forClassical Empires?

Romans- Enslaving the people they conquered

Describe the gender and family structures of Classical Era empires.

In China- family structures based on Confucianism, based on relationships within a family. Fathers on the top, sons second, mothers third, and the sons wife was lowest in the family. China- men dominated Persia and Rome- gender played a greater role than family structure.

What caused Classical Empires to decline, collapse, or transform into something else?

The Roman, Han, Persian, Marryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which led to the decline, collapse and transformation into successor empire states.

What were the environmental and social weaknesses of Classical Empires?

Social weaknesses- Roman emperors that became materialistic and increased tax pressure on the poor while the rich evaded taxes.Environmental causes-external forces that resulted from lack of inclusiveness and over extensions on the part of the empires.

What external weaknessescontributed to the end ofClassical Empires?

Romans, Germanic tribes jealousy of their wealth lead to investors that the Romans could not get rid of because of preoccupations with the wars against the Persians.

How did Classical era tradenetworks compare toAncient era networks?

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What forces contributed tothe changes between thetwo eras?

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What was commonly tradedalong these trade networks?

Raw materials and luxury goods.

How did trade & communication networks develop by 600 CE?

Land and water routes became the basis for trans-regional trade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americas.

What technologies enabledlong-distance overland andmaritime trade?

Long distance: Yokes, saddles or stirrups.Martime trade: lateen sail or dhow ships. and knowledge of the monsoon winds.

Besides the physical goods,what intangibles alsotraveled along tradenetworks?

Exchanges of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens.

What crops spread alongClassical Era tradenetworks?

Rice and cotton.

What effects did diseaseshave on Classical empires?

Diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires (such as Rome or China).

What was the relationshipbetween trade networks andreligions?

Religions were transformed as they spread (trade).