Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Conquistadors

were soldiers, explorers, and adventurers at the service of the Portuguese and Spanish Empire.[2][3] The name derived from the Reconquista[citation needed] (completed in 1492), the reconquest of the territory of the Iberian Peninsula that had been controlled by various Muslim states (known through much of that time as Al-Andalus). They sailed beyond Europe, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Portugal and Spain in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.

Probanza de Merito

the probanza de mérito, or "proof of merit" petition, served to highlight individual services to the Crown. Thousands of these petitions are housed in archives in Spain and throughout Latin America, offering rich details about the various conquest campaigns. Scholars have too often overlooked the value of these documents, claiming that the self-serving purpose of these records exaggerates individual accomplishments and thereby distorts the history of the conquest.

Verticality

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Khipu

sometimes called talking knots, were recording devices historically used in the region of Andean South America. A quipu usually consisted of colored, spun, and plied thread or strings from llama or alpaca hair. It could also be made of cotton cords. The cords contained numeric and other values encoded by knots in a base ten positional system. Quipus might have just a few or up to 2,000 cords.

Quechua

also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language. It is the most widely spoken language family of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8 million to 10 million speakers.[

Nahutl

is a language of the Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. It is spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua people, most of whom live in Central Mexico; some who live in El Salvador are known as the Pipil people. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica.Nahuatl has been spoken in Central Mexico since at least the 7th century AD.[4] It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history. During the centuries preceding the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Aztec Empire had expanded to incorporate most of Mexico, and its influence caused the variety of Nahuatl spoken by the residents of Tenochtitlan to become a prestige language in Mesoamerica. At the conquest, with the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Nahuatl also became a literary language, and many chronicles, grammars, works of poetry, administrative documents and codices were written in it during the 16th and 17th centuries.[5] This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan variety has been labeled Classical Nahuatl and is among the most studied and best-documented languages of the Americas.[6]

Tlatoani

The word literally means "speaker", but may be translated into English as "king".[1] A cihuātlàtoāni ([si.waː.t͡ɬaʔ.to.ˈaː.ni]) is a female ruler, or queen regnant.[2]The term cuauhtlatoani refers to "provisional, interim, or at least non-dynastic rulers".[3] The leaders of the Mexica prior to their settlement are sometimes referred to as quauhtlatoque, as are those colonial rulers who were not descended from the ruling dynasty.

Kuraka

was an official of the Inca Empire, who held the role of magistrate, about 4 levels down from the Sapa Inca, the head of the Empire.[1] The curacas were the heads of the ayllus (clan-like family units). They served as tax collector, and held religious authority, in that they mediated between the supernatural sphere and the mortal realm. They were responsible for making sure the spirit world blessed the mortal one with prosperity, and were held accountable should disaster strike, such as a drought.[2]

Ayllu

Ayllu is the traditional form of a community in the Andes, especially among Quechuas and Aymaras. They are an indigenous local government model across the Andes region of South America, particularly in Bolivia and Peru. Ayllus functioned prior to Inca conquest, during the Inca and Spanish colonial period, and continue to exist to the present day.[1]Ayllus were essentially extended family groups but they could adopt non-related members, giving individual families more variation and security of the land that they farmed.[2] The head of an Ayllu is called a Mallku which means, literally, Condor but is a title which can be roughly transliterated as prince. They would often have their own huaca, or minor god, usually embodied in a physical object such as a mountain or rock. They were usually led by a chief (called a curaca) but could have other political arrangements.

Llacta

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Ayllu

is the traditional form of a community in the Andes, especially among Quechuas and Aymaras. They are an indigenous local government model across the Andes region of South America, particularly in Bolivia and Peru. Ayllus functioned prior to Inca conquest, during the Inca and Spanish colonial period, and continue to exist to the present day.[1]Ayllus were essentially extended family groups but they could adopt non-related members, giving individual families more variation and security of the land that they farmed.[2] The head of an Ayllu is called a Mallku which means, literally, Condor but is a title which can be roughly transliterated as prince. They would often have their own huaca, or minor god, usually embodied in a physical object such as a mountain or rock. They were usually led by a chief (called a curaca) but could have other political arrangements

Coatequitl

Draft rotary labor system for public works like road system, and building temples and palaces

Calpolli

calpulli (from Classical Nahuatl calpōlli, Nahuatl pronunciation: [kaɬˈpoːlːi], meaning "large house") was the designation of an organizational unit below the level of the Altepetl "citystate". A Nahua citystate was divided into a number of calpullis that each constituted a unit where the calpulli inhabitants were collectively responsible for different organizational and religious tasks in relation to the larger altepetl. Calpullis controlled land which was available for calpulli members to cultivate and also operated the Telpochcalli schools for young men of commoner descent. In Aztec culture, as in most other civilizations, the family unit was very important. There were several levels of organization in Aztec family life beginning with the base family unit. The base family unit consisted of two parents and their unmarried children. The main functions of the base family unit were education of the children and food preparation. Many base family units, however, banded together to form extended families. The households of extended families were usually composed of several brothers and their families. The primary functions of the extended families were to coordinate land use and food production (such as growing crops). In most cases, extended families contained just a few base family units. In large cities, however, they often grew to many more.

Altepetl

in Pre-Columbian and Spanish conquest-era Aztec society, was the local, ethnically based political entity. It is usually translated into English as "city-state".[1] The word is a combination of the Nahuatl words ā-tl, meaning water, and tepē-tl, meaning mountain.Nahuatl scholars Lisa Sousa, Stafford Poole, and James Lockhart have stated:

Mita

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Tribute System

is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. Various ancient states exacted tribute from the rulers of land which the state conquered or otherwise threatened to conquer. In case of alliances, lesser parties may pay tribute to more powerful parties as a sign of allegiance and often in order to finance projects that benefited both parties. To be called "tribute" a recognition by the payer of political submission to the payee is normally required; the large sums, essentially protection money, paid by the later Roman and Byzantine Empires to barbarian peoples to prevent them attacking imperial territory, would not usually be termed "tribute" as the Empire accepted no inferior political position. Payments by a superior political entity to an inferior one, made for various purposes, are described by terms including "subsidy".

Hernan Cortes

1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (Spanish pronunciation: [erˈnaŋ korˈtes ðe monˈroj i piˈθaro]; 1485 - December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Moctezuma II

(c. 1466 - 29 June 1520), also known by a number of variant spellings including Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),[N.B. 1] was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size. Through warfare, Moctezuma expanded the territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and incorporated the Zapotec and Yopi people into the empire.[1] He changed the previous meritocratic system of social hierarchy and widened the divide between pipiltin (nobles) and macehualtin (commoners) by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces.[1]

Tlaxcalans

The Tlaxcalan (Tlascalan, Tlaxcaltecan, Tlaxcalteco) Indians of central Mexico, who spoke a Uto-Aztecan language, aided Cortez in his conquest of the Aztec empire and received certain privileges in return. This relationship of mutual aid and trust continued into later times, and Tlaxcalans often assisted the Spaniards on the frontier in exploration, warfare, and colonization. A Tlaxcalan was with Antonio de Espejo in Trans-Pecos Texas and New Mexico in 1582-1583. In 1688 a Tlaxcalan scout was sent by the governor of Coahuila to check on René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle's colony on the Texas coast

Malintzin

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Myth of Exceptional Men

the belief that the Spanish Conquest was enabled by certain outstanding individuals such as Columbus, Cortés and Pizarro and their personal courage and innovative strategies. Restall shows that instead, the techniques of conquest and colonization used by the early Spanish explorers had been developed throughout at least a century of colonial expansion by Spain and Portugal and were in fact mostly standard procedure.

Myth of the King's Army

the belief that the Spanish conquest was undertaken at the behest of the King of Spain and that the conquistadors were Spanish soldiers. Restall claims that in fact the conquistadors didn't necessarily see themselves as Spanish but rather identified as Andalusians, Castilians, Aragonese, Basque, Portuguese, Galician, and even Genoese, Flemish, Greek and Pardo (half-black). Nor were they acting under the command of the Holy Roman Emperor who was also the king of the Spanish realms. And they weren't soldiers in a military sense of the word but rather a group of feudal lords with their respective footmen, servants, pages and mercenaries.

Myth of the White Conquistador

the belief that the Spanish conquest was accomplished by a small number of white Spaniards. Restall claims that much of the actual military operations was undertaken by the indigenous allies of the Conquistadors, outnumbering the actual Spanish forces by many hundreds to one. He also shows that there were several conquistadors of African and Moorish descent — dispelling the idea of the conquest as a victory of the "white Europeans" over the "red Indians".

Myth of Completion

the belief that all of the Americas were under Spanish control within a few years after the initial contact. Restall claims that contrary to this belief pockets of indigenous peoples living without having been conquered subsisted for several centuries after the conquest - and arguably to this day. For example Tayasal, the last independent city of the Maya, did not fall under Spanish sway until 1697. In other areas of Latin America, Spanish control was never complete and rebellions were continuous. He shows that the colonization of the Americas did not happen as one fell swoop, but rather as a historical process starting centuries before the magic years of 1492 and 1521 and ending several centuries after.

Myth of Miscommunication

the beliefs that the Spaniards and natives had perfect communication and that each group understood the other's words and intentions unhindered, or alternatively that many of the crucial events of the conquest were a result of the two groups misunderstanding each other's intentions. Restall claims how communication between the groups were in fact very difficult at first, and that the rendering of passages of speech made by one group to the other in post-conquest sources cannot be understood as having been recorded "verbatim" even though it is understood and interpreted that way. But he also shows that the natives cannot be said to have crucially misunderstood or misinterpreted the Spaniards' intentions, but rather that they had a good understanding of how the Spanish worked at a very early stage in the conquest.

Myth of Native Desolation

the belief that the indigenous peoples of the Americas resigned to their fate, included themselves in the new European order and ceased to exist as ethnicities. He also argues that many of the indigenous peoples never felt "conquered" but rather that they had formed a partnership with a new power to both of their advantage - this for example was the case for most of the allied forces that helped Cortés defeat the Aztecs.

Myth of Superiority

the belief that the success of the Spanish conquest was due to either the supposed technological superiority of the Spaniards or a kind of inherent cultural superiority — and that Spanish victory was therefore inevitable. Restall claims that such technological advantages as handguns, cannons, steel armor, horses and dogs weren't of great consequence in the actual fighting since they were all in short supply, and that the Aztecs were not daunted by this new technology for long. He also refutes the notion that the Indians' lack of alphabetic writing constituted a major drawback. Nor were the Indians childlike, naive or cowardly in comparison with the Spanish such as many early Spanish sources have painted them. Restall argues that the factors behind the success of the conquistadors were mostly the devastating effect of European diseases for which the Indians had no resistance, the disunity between indigenous groups some of which allied with the Spaniards early, the technological advantage of the steel sword, native battle practices that were not upheld by the Spaniards — such as killing non-combatants and civilians, and most importantly the fact that the Indians were fighting on their own ground with their families and fields to care for, which made them quicker to compromise.

Quinto Real

was a 20% tax established in 1504 that Spain levied on the mining of precious metals. The tax was a major source of revenue for the Spanish monarchy. In 1723 the tax was reduced to 10%.Rather than levy the tax on the basis of the amount of silver or gold produced, the government tracked the amount of mercury used. Mercury was essential for the refinement of silver and gold in the patio process (see also amalgamation). The Spanish government had a monopoly of mercury production, through its mines at Almadén in Spain and at Huancavelica in Peru. In 1648 the Viceroy of Peru declared that Potosí and Huancavelica were "the two pillars that support this kingdom and that of Spain." Moreover, the viceroy thought that Spain could, if necessary, dispense with the silver from Potosí, but it could not dispense with the mercury from Huancavelica.[1]

Patrimonialism

is a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader. This constitutes essentially the blending of the public and private sector. These regimes are autocratic or oligarchic and exclude the upper and middle classes from power. The leaders of these countries typically enjoy absolute personal power. Usually, the armies of these countries are loyal to the leader, not the nation.

Municipality

is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction. The term municipality is also used to mean the governing body of a municipality.[1] A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French "municipalité" and Latin "municipalis".[2]

Mercantilism

is an economic doctrine based on the theory that a nation benefits by accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods. Mercantilism dominated Western European economic policy and discourse from the 16th to late-18th centuries.[1] Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time and motivated colonial expansion. Mercantilist theory varied in sophistication from one writer to another and evolved over time. Favours for powerful interests were often defended with mercantilist reasoning.

Municipality

is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction. The term municipality is also used to mean the governing body of a municipality.[1] A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French "municipalité" and Latin "municipalis".[

Viceroyalty

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Repartimiento

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Residencia

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Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Conquistadors

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Probanza de Merito

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Verticality

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Khipu

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Quechua

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Nahutl

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Tlatoani

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Kuraka

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Ayllu

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Llacta

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Ayllu

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Coatequitl

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Calpolli

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Altepetl

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Mita

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Tribute System

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Hernan Cortes

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Moctezuma II

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Tlaxcalans

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Malintzin

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of Exceptional Men

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of the King's Army

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of the White Conquistador

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of Completion

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of Miscommunication

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of Native Desolation

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Myth of Superiority

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Quinto Real

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Patrimonialism

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Municipality

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Mercantilism

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Municipality

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Viceroyalty

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Repartimiento

Final Exam Colonial Latin America

Residencia