Eli Whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)

Interchangeable parts

Interchangeable parts was the idea of if one specific part of an invention broke, the full invention would-not have to be fixed, only the part that was broken, by putting a new part in

Mass production

The manufacture of goods in large quantities, often using standardized designs and assembly-line techniques.

Industrial Revolution

The complex of radical socioeconomic changes, such as the ones that took place in England in the late 18th century, that are brought about when extensive mechanization of production systems results in a shift from home-based hand manufacturing to large-sc

Cotton gin

A machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton.

Henry Clay

(born April 12, 1777, Hanover county, Va., U.S.died June 29, 1852, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician.

American System

a term invoked by Kentucky representative Henry Clay in his 30-31 March 1824 speech to Congress as part of his argument for a higher tariff.

National Road

the first US-sponsored highway, built between 1811-1837 from Cumberland MD to Vandalia IL; also, any highway or network of highways built by a country's government; also called Cumberland

Erie Canal

a canal in New York between Albany and Buffalo, connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie: completed in 1825.

Tariff of 1816

The recently concluded War of 1812 forced Americans to confront the issue of protecting their struggling industries. The British had stashed large quantities of manufactured goods in warehouses during the war, but when peace was achieved in 1815, a flood

McCulloch V. Maryland

1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled

John Quincy Adams

(1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.


A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country

Adams-Onis Treaty

Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States

Monroe Doctrine

1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence

Missouri Compromise

Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.

Andrew Jackson

(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.

Democratic-Rebublican party

A political party known for its support of strong state goverments, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792 in opposition to the Federalist party.

Spoils system

rotation in office;" Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy

Indian Removal act

(1830) Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.

Trail of tears

(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees die

Daniel Webster

Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.

John C. Calhoun

(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society i

Tariff of Abominations

1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights

Bank of the United States

- Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide

Whig party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements

Martin Van Buren

(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.

William Henry Harrison

(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession

John Tyler

(1841-1845) His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the con

Panic of 1837

When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force