ch 8

angi/o

blood vessel

aort/o

aorta

arter/o, arteri/o

artery

atri/o

atrium

cardi/o

heart

coron/o

crown or circle, heart

my/o, myos/o

muscle

pector/o

chest

valvul/o

little valve

vas/o

vessel

vascul/o

little vessel

ven/o

vein

ventricu/o

little belly, ventricle

a-

without, absence of

brady-

slow

dys-

bad, abnormal, painful. diffcult

tachy-

fast

cyan/o

blue

pect/o, pector/o

chest

rhythm/o, rrhythm/o

rhythm

sten/o

narrow

-a

singular

-algia
-dynia

conditon of pain

-genic

pertaining to producing, forming

-ia

condition of

-osis

conditiong of

-plegia

paralysis

-sis

state of

-spasm

sudeen involuntary muscle contraction

angina pectoris

The primary symptom of insufficent supply of O2 to the heart....chest pain. Latin - literally means "chest chose

Angiospasm

Abnormal muscular contractions, or spasms, of the smooth muscles forming the vessel walls. Occurs in many blood vessel disorders

angiostenosis

Narrowing of the blood vessel causes a reduction of blood flow to the part of the body at the receiving end of the narrowed vessel.

Arrythmia
Dysrhythmia

Loss of the normal rhythm of the heart

Bradycardia

Abnormally slow heart rate. Under 60 beats/minute

Cardiodynai

Most common term for chest pain.

Cardiogenic

Symtpm or sign that originates from the condition of the heart.
Ex: The pain sensation of angina pectoris = cardiogenic symptom becaues it is caused by insufficent blood flow to heart

Cardioplegia

Sign in which the heart has become paralyzed

Cyanosis

Symtpom in which a blue tinge is seen in the skin and mucuos membranes. Cuased by oxygen deficiency in tissues and is a common sign of respiratory failure often caused by cardiovascular disease

Palpitation

Symptom of pounding, racing, ot skipping, of the heartbeat

Tachycardia

A rapid heart rate. Heart eceeds 100 beats/ min

peri-

around

poly-

excessive, over, many

ather/o

fatty

ischo

hold back

my/o

muscle

phleb/o

vein

sclero

hard

sept/o

putrefying; wall, partition

sten/o

narrow

tampon/o

plug

tens/o

pressure

thromb/o

clot

valvul/o

little valve

varic/o

dilated vein

-ac

pertainting to

-ade

process

-al

pertaining to

-ar

pertaining to

-ic

pertaining to

-ion

process

-megaly

abnormally large

-osis

condition of

aneurysm

abnormal bulging of an arterial wall. Caused by a congential defect or an acquired weakness of the artieral wall, which worsens in time as blood is pushed against it. The bursting of a large aneurysm is life threatning, resulting in massive hemorrahge

angiocarditis

Inflammation of the heart and blood vessels. Cuased by a widespread bacterial infection of the blood, or septicemi.

Angioma
Hemangioma

Tumor arising from a blood vessel. Benign clump of endothelium forming a mass. In some cases the mass can obstruct the flow of blood through the vessel.
-Term carries a second meaning of a red or purple birthmark on the skin that does not obstruct blood f

Aortic insufficiency (AI)

Aortic valve is the semilunar valve located at the base of the aorta. which normally prevents blood from returning to the left ventricle. If it fails to close completely during ventricular diastole, blood may return ot the left ventricle, causing the left

Aortic Stenosis

Narrowing of the aorta that reduces the flow ofd blood through this large vessel, which causes the left ventricle to work harder than normal. Usually a mroe serious condition than aortic insufficiency; even though the long term effect is limilar... leads

Aortitis

Inflammtion of the aorta
-Caused by bacterial infection; can lead to acute aortic insufficiency

Arteriopathy

General term used for disease of the artery.

Arteriosclerosis
Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease (ADHD)

Thickening of the artery wall and loss of its elasticity, resulting in reduced flow of blood to tissues.
-Risj of getting this increases with age
-ADHD if the coronary arteries supplying the heart are damaged by this disease

Atherosclerosis

Specific form of arteriosclerosis
-One or more fatty plaques form along the inner walls of arteries. The plaques thicken with time, which reduces the flow of blood thorugh the affected vessel.
-Major cause of coronary artery disease, which poses an immedi

Atrial septal defect

congential condition marked by a failure of the foramen ovale to close at birth, producing an opening in the septum that separates the right and left atria. It allows blood to pass between the two atria which bypasses the pulmonary circulation.

Atriomegaly

Abnormally enlarged or dilated atria. Reduces there ability to push blood into the ventricles. Form of cardiomegaly

Atrioventricular block

An injury to the atrioventricular node (AV node), which normally receives impulses from the sinoatrial node (SA node) and transmits them to the ventricles to stimulate ventricular contraction
-Injury is cuaed by a myocardial infection during which thecell

Cardiac arrest
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)

The cessation of heart activity.
-SCA: people have little or no wargning. Major killer

Cardiac tamponade

Acute compression of the heart due to accumulation of fluid within the pericardial cavity.
-Complication of an inflammatory disease ofthe pericardium (Pericarditis)

Cardiomegaly

Abnormal enlargement of the heart. Occurs when the heart must work harder than normal to meet the oxygen demands of the bpdy cells

Cardiomyopathy

General term for a disease of the myocardium of the heart
-Most common causes: Hypertension, chronic alcoholism, bacterial infection, and congential defects of the myocardial cells

Cardiovalvulitis

Inflammation of the valves of the heart
-Caused by bacterial infection that leads to deposition of calcium deposit on heart valves
-diagnosed by presence of a heart mumur

Coarctation

Congenital defect that is present at birth. caused the aorta to have reduced systemic circulation of blood and accumulation of fluid in the lungs and requires surgical repair 'coarcto' "to press together

Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Left ventricular failure

a chronic form of heart disease characterized by the failure of the left ventricle to pump enough blood to supply systemic tissues. This makes the heart work harder, resulting in cardiomegaly, pulmonary congestion, and reduced stroke volume that eventuall

Cor pulmonale
Right ventricular failure

A chronic enlargement of the right ventricle resulting from the congestion of the pulmonary circulation.

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

General term for a disease that afflicts the coronary arteries supplying the heart.
- Most common form of CAD is atherosclerosis

Coronary occulsion

blockage within the coronary artery, resulting in the reduced blood flow to an area of the heart muscle.
-most common cause" atherosclerosis or other diseases that lead to emboil (drifting blood clots( and a congential stenosis

embolism

a blockage or occulsion that forms when a blood clot or other foreing particle moves through the circulation. It can produce a severe circulatory restriction when the blood clot or particle, lodges in an artery

Endocarditis

Inflammtion of the endocardium, the thin membrane lining the inside walls of the heart chambers.
-because the endocardium also covers the heart valves, endocarditis often results in cardiovalvulities

Fibrillation

Condition of uncoordinated, rapid contractions of the nuscle forming the ventricles or atria. It is a severe form of arrythmia
-2 types: atrial and ventricular

Atrial fibrillation

Leads to a reduction of blood expelled from the atria and is usualy NOT fatal

Ventricular fibrillation

results in circulatory collapse due to the failure of the ventricles to expelblood

heart block

A block of delay of the normal electrical conduction of the heart.
-often the result of myocardial infarction that damages the SA node or AV node

Heart mumur

an abnormal, soft gurgling orblowing sound heard during ausculation of the heart. Indicates the regurgitation of blood through one or mroe heart valves.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

most common form of heart mumus. Occurs when the mitral valve leaks during ventricular contraction

Hemorrhoids

Presence of dilated, or varicose, weins in the anal region. Symptoms are local inthcing and pain

Hypertension

Persistently high blood pressure.

Essential hypertension

conditions is NOT traceable to a singe cause

Secondary hypertension.

High blood pressure is caused by tthe effects of another disease (like atherosclerosis)

Hypotension

A condition of abnormally low blood pressure
-Acute reaction to hemorrhage or septicemia

Ischemia

Abnormally low flow of blood to tissues "codition of holding back blood"
-Coronary ischemia : temporary deficiency caused by occlusion, such as the atherosclerotic plawue, emboli, or congenital stenosis

Myocardial infection

Death of a portion of the myocardium . Infarction is a term used to describe a death of cells resulting from a sudden loss of blood flow.
-common name = HEART ATTACK

Myocarditis

Inflammation ofthe myocardium of the heart.
-Form of cardiomyopathy

Patent ductus arteriosus

A congenital condition marked by an opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta at birth due to a failure of the fetal vessel, called the ductus arteriosus. The condition permits the blood flow from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, which bypasses

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, the pericardium. Affects both layers of the pericardium

Phlebitis
Thrombophlebitis

Inflmmation of a vein
Inflammation of the vein includes an obstruction by a blood clot

Polyarteritis

Simulataneous inflammation of many arteries

Septicemia

Bacterial infection of the blood stream. Because the bacteria are carried throughout the body by way of the infected blood, it becomes widespread and life threatning quickly

Tetralogy of Fallot

A severe congenital disease in which four defects associated with the heart are present at birht
1) pulmonary stenosis: narrowing of the pulmonary valve
2) ventricular septal defect
3) incorrect position of the aorta
4) right ventricular hypertrophy
as a

Thrombosis

Presence of stationary blood clots within one or more blood vessels. Often caused by atherosclerosis and its rupture can result in sudden death due to an acute myocardial infarction

Varicosis

An abnormally dilated vein. results when vlaves within a superficial vein of the leg or else where fails, allowing blood to pool in response to gravitational forces

Ventricular septal defect

A congential disease in which an opening in the septum separating the right and left ventricles is resent at birth. The opening allows some blood to flow from the left to the right ventricles, reducing blood flow to body organs while dangerously increasin

ech/o-

sound

man/o

thin, scanty

son/o

sound

sphygm/o

pulse

0lytic

pertaining to loosen, dissolve

angiography
angiogram
cardia/ coronary angiography

diagnostic procedure that includes X-ray photography, MRI, or CT scan images of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium,
When the procedure is focused on the heart

angioplasty

surgical repair of a blood vessel

Balloon angioplasty

procedure to reopen blocked vessels ... balloon is inserted into blocked vessel and inflated

Laser angioplasty

uses a laser beam to open a blocked artery

Angioscopy
Angioscope

Use of a flexible fiber-optic instrument, or endoscope, to observe a diseased blood vessel and to assess any lesions.
camera at one end and video monitor at other end

Angiostomy

Surgical procedure that involves the creation of an opening into a blood vessel, usually for the insertion of a catheter.

Angiotomy

Surgical incision in to a blood vessel.

Aortography
Aortogram

Procedure that obtains an X-ray image, MRI< or CT scane of the aorta.

Arteriography
Arteriogram

A procedure that obtains an image of an artery.

Arteriotomy
Arterioplasty
Arteriorrhapy

Incision into an artery
Repair an injured artery
Suturing of the opening of the artery

Ausculation

Part of physical exam that involves listening to internal soudns using a stethoscope.

Cardiac catheterization

Insertion of a narrow flexible tube through a blood vessel leading into the heart. Used to withdraw blood samples from heart chambers, measure pressures, and inject contrsast medium for imaging processes.

Cardiac pacemaker

Battery powered device that is implanted in the skin and wired to the wall of the heart. It produces timeed electrical pulses that replace the function of the SA node as treatment for a heart block and other arrythmias.
Has recently been improved --> "on-

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

An emergency procedure that us used to restore breathing by applying a combination of chest compressiosn and artificial ventilation at intervals (CPR)

Coronary artery bypass graft

A surgical procedure that involves removing a blood vessel from another part of the body and inserting t into the coronary circulation. The grafted vessel restores bblood flow to an oxygen-deprived area of the heart by carrying blood around an occluded (b

Coronary stent

An artificial, metallic scaffold that is used to anchor a surgical implant, or graft. In coronary ciruclation, a coronary stent may be implanted into a coronary artery that is occluded to restore blood flow to an oxygen deprived part of the heart. It may

Defibrillation

In cases in which an arrhythmia progresses to the state of ventricular fibrillation, an electric charge may be applied to the chest wall to stop the heart conduction system momentarily, then restart it with a more normal heart rhthym. In most cases, the e

Dopple sonography

An ultrasound that evaluates blood flow though a blood vessel. Performed on the heart to evaluate coronary circulation in a noninvasive manner and may also be used to monitor pulse rate from peripheral arteries.

Echocardiography
Ultrasonography

An ultrasound that directs sound waves through the heart to observe heart structures in an effort to evaluate heart function.
-If a heart condition is suspected, it is often performed during and after exercise tp reproduce the dysfunction for closer evalu

Electrocardiography
Electrocardiogram (ECG) or (EKG)
Stress ECG

Electrodes are pasted to the skin of the chest to detect and record the electrical events in teh heart conduction system.
Stress ECG

Embolectomy

Surgical removal of a floating blood clot (embolus)

Endarterectomy

removal of the inner lining of an artery to remove fatty plaque. Most common site is the cartoid artery in the neck, which is subject to developing atherosclerotic plaques

holter monitor

A portable electrocardiograph may be worn by the patient to monitor electircal activity of the heart over 24 hr periods. Device is useful in detecting periodic or transient cardiac abnormalities

Nitroglycerin

A drug that is used as an emergency vasodilatoer as a treatment for severe angine pectoris or myocardial infarction. the vasodialtion that results temporarily improves blood flow to the heart and toehr vital organs

Phlebectomy

Surgical removal of a vein

Phlebotomy

A puncture into a vein to remove blood for sampling or donation.

Position emission tomography scan

A noninvasive procedure that provides blood flow images using PET techniques compbined with radioactive isotope labeling that may be used to produce images of the heart to reveal defects

Sphygmomanometry

Procedure that measures arterial blood pressure. Uses a device that consists of an arm cuff and air pressure pump with a pressure gauge

Thrombolytic therapy

treatments to dissolve unwanted blood clots; often necesary after surgery to preventt the development of emboli. Also performed after a myocardial infarction to minimize damage to the heart
-includes the use of drugs such as streptokinase and tissue plasm

Treadmill stress test

if a heart condition is suspected, a cardiologist will require patient to undergo exercise during echocardiography or electrocardiography in an effort to examine heart function understress

Valvuloplasty

Surgical repair of a heart valve. May need to use artificail valve