Vitamins, Minerals, and Nutritional Supplements VOCAB

ascorbic acid

a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for the formation of collagen and fibroid tissue for teeth, bones, cartilage, connective tissue, and skin (AKA VITAMIN C)

ataxia

loss of the ability to coordinate muscular movement

beriberi

a deficiency caused by thiamine, characterized by neurological symptoms, cardiovascular abnormalities, and edema

biotin

a water-soluble B complex vitamin that aids in fatty acid production, and in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates (AKA VITAMIN B7)

cachexia

weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, general debility that can occur during a chronic disease

calciferol

a fat-soluble vitamin chemically related to steroids.
essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth and important for absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the GI tract (AKA VITAMIN D)

calcium (Ca)

the fifth-most abundant element in the human body, present mainly in the bones

carotenoids

any of a class of yellow to red pigments, including the carotenes of xanthophylls

cheilosis

fissures on the lips caused by deficiency of riboflaven

chloride (Cl)

involved in the maintenance of fluid and the body's acid-base balance

copper (Cu)

important for the synthesis of hemoglobin because it is part of a co-enzyme involved in its synthesis
a component of several important enzymes in the body, and essential to good health

cretinism

arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues due to congenital lack of thyroid secretion

cyanocobalamin

a water-soluble substance that is the common pharmaceutic form of B12
involved in the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates, and also in normal blood formation and neural function

electrolytes

compounds, particularly salts, that when dissolved in water or another solvent, dissociate into ions and are able to conduct an electric current

enteral nutrition (EN)

feeding by the tube directly into the patient's digestive tract

fluorine

a chemical element that is used as a diagnostic aid in various tissue scans

folic acid

essential for cell growth and the reproduction of red blood cells (AKA VITAMIN B9)

food addivitve

any substance that becomes part of a food product

hemolysis

the destruction or dissolution of red blood cells, with release of hemoglobin

hypervitaminosis

an abnormal condition resulting from excessive intake of toxic amounts of one or more vitamins, especially over a long period

hydroxocobalamin

is involved in the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates, aids in hemoglobin synthesis, is essential for normal functioning of all cells, and is important in energy metabolism (AKA VITAMIN B12)

hyperalimentation (total parenteral nutrition)

aka "TPN", this treatment is used to supply complete nutrition to patients when the enteral route cannot be used; all needed nutrients are injected into the body intravaneously

hypomagnesemia

am abnormally low level of magnesium in the blood

hypovitaminosis

a condition related to the deficiency of one or more vitamins

intrinsic factor

a substance that is secreted by the gastric mucus membrane and is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestines

iodine

an essential micronutrient of the thyroid hormone (thyroxine)

iron (Fe)

a common metallic element essential for the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, as well as the transfer of oxygen to the body tissues

keratomalacia

a condition, usually in children with vitamin A deficiency, characterized by softening, ulceration, and perforation of the cornea

magnesium

an important ion for the function of many enzyme systems, and is the second most abundant action of the intracellular fluids in the body

menadione

a water-soluble injectable form of the product of vitamin K3

minerals

inorganic substances occurring naturally in the earth's crust having characteristic chemical composition

niacin

contains parts of two enzymes that regulate energy metabolism and is essential for a healthy skin, tongue, and digestive system (AKA VITAMIN B3 or NICTONIC ACID)

nictonic acid

contains parts of two enzymes that regulate energy metabolism and is essential for a healthy skin, tongue, and digestive system (AKA VITAMIN B3 or NIACIN)

osteomalacia

a disease in which the bone softens and becomes brittle

pantothenic acid

a member of the vitamin B complex widely distributed in plant and animal tissues and that may be an important element in human nutrition (AKA VITAMIN B5)

pellagra

a disease caused by a deficiency of niacin and protein in the diet, characterized by skin eruptions, digestive and nervous system disturbances, and eventual mental deterioration

pharma food

a system of receiving nourishment by breathing in nutritional microparticles

phosphorus

is essential for the metabolism of protein, calcium, and glucose, aids in building strong bones and teeth, and helps in the regulation of the body's acid-base balance

potassium

the major electrolyte in intracellular fluids, helping to regulate neuromuscular excitability and muscle contraction

pyridoxine

a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B complex and acts as a co-enzyme essential for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids (AKA VITAMIN B6)

retiniol

a fat-soluble vitamin essential for skeletal growth, maintenance of normal mucosal epithelium, reproduction, and visual acuity (AKA VITAMIN A)

riboflavin

one of the heat-stable components of the B complex, it is involved as a co-enzyme in the oxidative process of carboydrates, fats, and proteins (AKA VITAMIN B2)

rickets

a deficiency disease resulting fro ma lack of vitamin D or calcium and from insufficient exposure to sunlight, characterized by defective bone growth and occurring mostly in children

sodium

one of the most important elements of the body; sodium ions are involved in acid-base balance, water balance, transmission of nerve impulses, and contraction of muscles

sulfer

necessary to all body tissues and is found in all body cells

thiamine

a water-soluble, crystalline compound of the B complex, essential for normal metabolism and health of cardiovascular and nervous systems (AKA VITAMIN B1)

tocopherol

a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal reproduction, muscle development, resistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis, and various other biochemical functions (AKA VITAMIN E)

xerophthalmia

extreme dryness of the conjunctiva resulting from eye an disease or from systemic deficiency of vitamin A

vitamins

organic compounds essential in small quantities fir physiologic and metabolic functioning of the body

vitamin A

a fat-soluble vitamin essential for skeletal growth, maintenance of normal mucosal epithelium, reproduction, and visual acuity (AKA RETINOL)

vitamin B1

a water-soluble, crystalline compound of the B complex, essential for normal metabolism and health of the cardiovascular and nervous systems (AKA THIAMINE)

vitamin B2

one of the heat-stable components of the B complex, it is involved as a co-enzyme in the oxidative processes of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (AKA RIBOFLAVIN)

vitamin B3

contains parts of two enzymes that regulate energy metabolism and is essential for a healthy skin, tongue, and digestive system (AKA NICTONIC ACID)

vitamin B5

a member of the vitamin B complex widely distributed in plant and animal tissues and that may be an important element in human nutrition (AKA PANTOTHENIC ACID)

vitamin B6

a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B complex and acts as a co-enzyme essential for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids (AKA PYRIDOXINE)

vitamin B7

a water-soluble B complex vitamin that aids in fatty acid production, and in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates (AKA BIOTIN)

vitamin B9

essential for cell growth and the reproduction of red blood cells (AKA FOLIC ACID)

vitamin B12

is involved in the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates, aids in hemoglobin synthesis, is essential for normal functioning of all cells, and is important in energy metabolism (AKA CYANOCOBALAMIN)

vitamin B complex

a pharmaceutical term applied to drug products containing a mixture of the B vitamins, usually B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nictinamide), and B6 (pyridoxine)

vitamin C

a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for the formation of collagen and fibroid tissue for teeth, bones, cartilage, connective tissue, and skin (AKA ASCORBIC ACID)

vitamin D

a fat-soluble vitamin chemically related to steroids that is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth and important for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the GI tract (AKA CALCIFEROL)

vitamin E

a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal reproduction, muscle development, resistance of erythrocrytes to hemolysis, and various other biochemical functions (AKA TOCOPHEROL)

vitamin K

essential for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver

zinc (Zn)

a trace element that is essential for several body enzymes, growth, glucose, tolerance wound healing, and taste acuity