Anatomy & Physiology Origin & Insertion

Epicranius (frontal belly)

Raise eyebrows <Human only>

Orbicularis Oculi

Closes eyes <Human only>

Levator labii superioris

Elevates upper lips <Human only>

Zygomaticus

Elevates lateral corners of mouth <Human only>

Risorius

Draws lips laterally (tenses lips) <Human only>

Depressor labii inferioris

Depresses lips <Human only>

Orbicularis oris

Closes lips <Human only>

Mentalis

Protrudes lower lip <Human only>

Buccinator

Compresses cheek <Human only>

Masseter

Elevates mandible

Temporalis

Elevates and retracts mandible (closes jaw) <Human only>

Digastric

Elevates hyoid bone; depresses mandible

Mylohyoid

Elevates hyoid
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Hyoid bone

Sternohyoid

Depresses hyoid
Origin: Manubrium of sternum
Insertion: Hyoid bone

Sternocleidomastoid

Flexes neck forward
Origin: Manubrium of sternum and clavicle
Insertion: Mastoid process of the temporal bone

Pectoralis major

Flexes upper arm at the shoulder; adducts, and medially rotates shoulder.
Origin: Clavicle, sternum, ribs
Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus

Pectoralis minor

Draws scapula forward
Origin: Ribs
Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula

Serratus anterior

Rotates scapula

Rectus abdominus

Flexes and rotates vertebral column
Origin: Pubic crest & symphysis
Insertion: Xiphoid process of sternum

External oblique

Flexes and rotates vertebral column

Internal oblique

Flexes and rotates vertebral column

Transverse abdominus

Compress abdominal contents

Trapezius

Extend head; rotate and adduct scapula
Origin: Occipital bone and vertebrae
Insertion: Acromion and spine of scapula; clavicle

Deltoid

Abduct humerus at the shoulder
Origin: Clavicle and spine of the scapula
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

Latissimus dorsi

Extends arm at the shoulder; adducts and medially rotates arm

Levator scapulae

Elevates and adducts scapula

Supraspinatus

Abduction of the arm at the shoulder
Origin: Supraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus

Infraspinatus

Lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder
Origin: Infraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus

Teres minor

Lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder
Origin: Lateral Margin of scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus

Subscapularis

Medial rotation of the arm at the shoulder
Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser tubercle of the humerus

Rhomboid muscles

Retracts scapula

Triceps brachii

Long, Lateral, and Medial heads. Extends forearm at the elbow
Origin:
Insertion: Olecranon process of the ulna

Brachialis

Flexes forearm at the elbow
Origin: Humerus
Insertion: Coronoid process of the ulna

Brachioradialis

Flexes forearm at the elbow
Origin: Humerus
Insertion: Styloid process of the radius

Biceps brachii

Flexes forearm at the elbow; supinates forearm at the elbow
Origin: Coracoid process of scapula
Insertion: Radial tuberosity

Extensors

Extend hand at the wrist

Flexors

Flexes hand at wrist

Sartorius

Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion: Tibia

Gracilis

Adducts thigh at the hip
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia

Pectineus

Adduct thigh at the hip

Adductor longus and femoris (magnus)

Adduct thigh at the hip

Tensor fascia lata

Flex, abduct, and medially rotate thigh

Vastus lateralis

Extends lower leg at the knee
Origin: Greater trochanter of femur
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity

Vastus medialis

Extends lower leg at the knee
Origin: Linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity

Rectus femoris

Extends lower leg at knee; flexes thigh at the hip
Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity

Semitendinosus

Extends leg at the thigh, flexes lower leg at the knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Tibia

Semimembranosus

Extends leg at the thigh; flexes lower leg at the knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia and lateral condyle of femur

Biceps femoris

Extends thigh at the hip; flexes lower leg at the knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Tibia

Gluteus maximus

Extends thigh at the hip

Gluteus medius

Abducts and medially rotates thigh at the hip

Tibialis anterior

Dorsiflexes the foot

Extensor digitorum longus

Dorsiflexes the foot

Fibularis longus

Plantar flexes the foot; everts foot

Gastrocnemius

Plantar flexes the foot

Soleus

Plantar flexes the foot