Malaria

diploid

cell with a full set of parent chomosomes

haploid

cell with a half set of parent chromosomes

gamete

male and femalere productive cells- sperm and eggs

gametocyte

This form of the malarial parasite is ingested by the mosquito in a blood meal.

Exo-erythrocytic cycle

The part of the parasite lifecycle in humans that occurs in the liver, prior to release of parasites into the blood stream.

erythrocytic cycle

(acute malaria) merozoites infect the RBCs in this stage, - where you see the Fever, chills, and sweats in humans

sporogonic cycle

Mosquito phase; definitive host (female anopheles misquito) sexual reproduction Gametocytes --> gametes --> zygote --> ookinete --> oocyst --> meiosis --> sporozoites,

oocyst

A zygote produced by fusion of gametes in the apicomplexans (protoctists), which produces infective haploid spores by meiosis (sporogony).

ookinete

If a female gametocyte forms and egg and the male gametocyte forms several sperm, a sperm can fuse with an egg to form the zygote or ____

DDT

A colorless odorless water-insoluble crystalline insecticide that tends to accumulate in ecosystems and has toxic effects on many vertebrates; became the most widely used pesticide from WWII to the 1950's; implicated in illnesses and environmental problem

artimisin

Treatment for Uncomplicated P. falciparum

2 hosts of the parasite

female mosqito and human

life cycle of a mosquito

egg, larva, pupa, and adult

Blood Smers

Shows trophozoites in and out of RBCsDrop of blood smeared with edge of second slide until nickel-sized
Thick- greater volume of blood being tested, so greater parasite load; more difficult to read
Thin- great with species ID and quantification

Antigen detection tests (AKA rapid detection tests- RDTs)

Dipstick- drop of blood
Confirm malaria, not species

Parasite density test

After malaria detected in smear
Observe RBCs on thin smear
% infected RBCs

symtoms of P. falciparum

rapid progression to symptoms that include high fever, coma, spleen, brain, liver, and kidney damage. Mortality rate of 4-20%. Additional complications in pregnancy.

symptoms of P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale (least common)-

Fever, chills, recurring fever, low mortality rate, mild anemia, splenic rupture

symptoms of P. knowlesi-

high parasite loads quickly due to fast intraerythrocytic cycle; can be fatal

Hypnozoites

the dormant stage of P. vivax and P. ovale that persist in liver and cause relapses

Sporozoite

Infectious form of parasite which is injected in humans by mosquito vector