EPA 410-A Definitions


Any device that contains and uses a refrigerant and that is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, refrigerator, chiller, or freezer. EPA interprets this definition to include all air-conditioning and refrigeration equip


A blend of two or more components whose equilibrium vapor phase and liquid phase compositions are the same at a given pressure. These refrigerants are given a 500 series ASHRAE designation and behave like a single refrigerant. They can be charged as a liq

Commercial Refrigeration

Refrigeration appliances used in retail food and cold storage warehouse sectors. "Retail food" includes the refrigeration equipment found in supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants, and other food service establishments. "Cold storage" includes the


A substance formed by a union of two or more elements in a definite proportion by weight.


The process leading to and including any of the following:
(1) The discharging, depositing, dumping, or placing of any discarded appliance into or on any land or water.
(2) The disassembly of any appliance for discharging, depositing, dumping, or placing


The separation of a liquid mixture into separate parts by the preferential evaporation of the more volatile component.


A halogenated hydrocarbon containing one or more of the three halogens: fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. Hydrogen may or may not be present.

High-Pressure Appliance

(prior to March 12, 2004, referred to by the EPA as higher-pressure appliance) An appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure between 170 psia and 355 psia at 104�F. This definition includes but is not limited to appliances u


A compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon.

Industrial Process

Complex customized appliances used in the chemical, Refrigeration pharmaceutical, petrochemical industries, and in manufacturing. This sector includes industrial ice machines and ice rinks.


One of a group of substances having the same combination of elements but arranged spatially in different ways.

Leak Rate

The rate at which an appliance is losing refrigerant, measured between refrigerant charges or over 12 months, which ever is shorter. The leak rate is expressed in terms of the percentage of the appliance's full charge that would be lost over a 12-month pe

Low-Loss Fitting

Any device that is intended to establish a connection between hoses, appliances, or recovery/recycling machines, and that is designed to close automatically or to be closed manually when disconnected to minimize the release of refrigerant from hoses, appl

Low-Pressure Appliance

(definition unchanged by the EPA's March 12, 2004 rule change) An appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure below 45 psia at 104�F. Evacuation requirements for the low-pressure category apply to these appliances. This defin

Major Maintenance

Maintenance, service, or repair that involves removal of the Service or Repair appliance compressor, condenser, evaporator, or auxiliary heat exchanger coil.

Medium-Pressure Appliance

(prior to March 12, 2004, referred to by the EPA as high-pressure appliance) An appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure between 45 psia and 170 psia at 104�F. R-114 appliances are at the low-pressure end since the saturat


A blend of two or more components that do not have a fixed proportion to one another and that no matter how well blended, still retain a separate existence (oil and water for example).

Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant

A synonym for zeotropic, the latter being preferred though less commonly used descriptor. zeotropic: blends comprising multiple components of different volatilities that, when used in refrigeration cycles, change volumetric composition and saturation temp

Normal Charge

The quantity of refrigerant within the appliance or appliance component when the appliance is operating with a full charge of refrigerant.

Opening an Appliance

Any service, maintenance, or repair on an appliance that could be reasonably expected to release refrigerant from the appliance to the atmosphere unless the refrigerant were previously recovered from the appliance.


Any individual or legal entity, including an individual corporation, partnership, association, state, municipality, political subdivision of a state, Indian tribe, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent,

Process Stub

A length of tubing that provides access to the refrigerant inside a small appliance or room air conditioner that can be resealed at the conclusion of repair or service.


The absolute pressure in pounds per square inch, where 0 PSIA corresponds to 29.9 inches of mercury vacuum and 14.7 PSIA corresponds to 0 PSIG (pounds per square inch gauge).


The gauge pressure in pounds per square inch, where 0 PSIG corresponds to atmospheric pressure (14.7 PSIA). A positive PSIG value indicates the pressure in pounds per square inch above the ambient pressure.


To reprocess refrigerant to at least the purity specified in the ARI Standard 700, Specifications for Fluorocarbon Refrigerants, and to verify this purity using the analytical test procedures described in the Standard.


To remove refrigerant in any condition from an appliance and to store it in an external container without necessarily testing or processing it in any way.

Recovery Efficiency

The percentage of refrigerant in an appliance that is recovered by a unit of recycling or recovery equipment.


To extract refrigerant from an appliance and to clean refrigerant for reuse without meeting all of the requirements for reclamation. In general, recycled refrigerant is refrigerant that is cleaned using oil separation and single or multiple passes through


The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigeration system which absorbs heat during evaporation at low temperature and pressure, and releases heat during condensation at a higher temperature and pressure.

Refrigerant (exception definition)

Any class I or class II substance used for heat transfer purposes, or any substance used as a substitute for such a class I or class II substance by any user in a given end-use, except for the following substitutes in the following end-uses:
ammonia in co

Self-Contained Recovery

Recovery or recycling equipment that is capable of removing refrigerant from an appliance without the assistance of components contained in the appliance.

Small Appliance

Any of the following products that are fully manufactured, charged, and hermetically sealed in a factory with five pounds or less of refrigerant: refrigerators and freezers designed for home use, room air conditioners (including window air conditioners an

System Dependent Recovery Equipment

Recovery equipment that relies upon the compressor in the appliance and/or the pressure of the refrigerant in the appliance.


Any chemical or product substitute, whether existing or new, that is used by any person as a replacement for a class I or II compound in a given end-use.


Recovery equipment that requires the assistance of recovery components contained in an appliance to remove the refrigerant from the appliance.


Any person who performs maintenance, service, or repair that could reasonably be expected to release Class I (CFC) or Class II (HCFC) substances into the atmosphere, including but not limited to installers, contractor employees, in-house service personnel

Very-High-Pressure Appliance

(definition unchanged by the EPA's March 12, 2004 rule change) Appliance An appliance that uses refrigerants with a critical temperature below 104�F or with a liquid phase saturation pressure above 355 psia at 104�F. This category includes but is not limi