Poli Sci Exam #1


- Activity through which people make, preserve and amend general rules under which they live
- Evaluation of choices and the exercise of power
- Conflict and cooperation
- Search for conflict resolution


- Defined in two different ways
- 1) The ability of an actor to produce behavior or outcomes in accordance with its preferences
- Power to do something
- 2) The ability of an actor to get another party to do something the actor wants, but the other party

Classical liberalism

- Individualism
- Equality of opportunity
- Optimistic view of human nature
- Constitutionalism, specifically limited government
- John Locke

Classical conservatism

- Tradition
- Inevitability of social conflict
- Authority, specifically a strong government
- Edmund Burke


- Community
- Social equality, specifically equality of outcome
- Strong role for government
- Communists
- Social democrats


- Rejects democracy and equality
- Centralized government and strong dictator
- Puts nation (or race) above the individual
- Superiority and forcible suppression


- As a country: defined territory, permanent population, effective government, and international recognition
- Also, as a set of institutions responsible for making and enforcing collective institutions


- Absolute authority and power

Failed states



- A group of people who share a common language, religion and historical experience
- Desire to form a political community, usually a state

Third world statism model

- Governments play a strong role in managing economy
- Import-substitution industrialization (ISI) strategy
- Aims to promote economic growth and reduce inequality
- Lack of competition and foreign investments
(ex) India

Developmental state model

- Governments play strong role in managing economy
- Export-led industrialization (ELI)
- Subsidizes the creation of monopolies
-Encourages the export of porducts
(ex) Japan


- Not a single process but a complex of processes
- The tendency or traditional political borders to become permeable
- Divisions between people become less significant
- Can be economic, cultural, and political

Modernization theory



1) Government is based on consent of citizens
2) Majority rules, but rights of minority are protected
3) Citizens are protected from arbitrary action of state - fundamental rights


- Process of change from authoritarianism to democracy
- Three stages:
1) Liberalization and/or collapse
2) Transition
3) Consolidation - country does not turn back to previous government

Democratic consolidation

- Broad acceptance of democracy
- System of checks and balances - separation of powers
- Development of effective political institutions
- Predictability

Single-member district plurality (SMDP) electoral system

- Country divided into several electoral districts
- One representative from each district elected to the national assembly
- Candidate with largest number of votes wins
(ex) United States

Proportional representation (PR) electoral system

- Based on percentage of votes gathered by each party
- Seats are allocated to each party in assembly
(ex) Brazil


- People directly vote on a particular proposal or a group of proposals
(ex) The recently changed marriage law in MN was partially a result of a referendum