Poli Sci Exam #1

Politics

- Activity through which people make, preserve and amend general rules under which they live
- Evaluation of choices and the exercise of power
- Conflict and cooperation
- Search for conflict resolution

Power

- Defined in two different ways
- 1) The ability of an actor to produce behavior or outcomes in accordance with its preferences
- Power to do something
- 2) The ability of an actor to get another party to do something the actor wants, but the other party

Classical liberalism

- Individualism
- Equality of opportunity
- Optimistic view of human nature
- Constitutionalism, specifically limited government
- John Locke

Classical conservatism

- Tradition
- Inevitability of social conflict
- Authority, specifically a strong government
- Edmund Burke

Socialism

- Community
- Social equality, specifically equality of outcome
- Strong role for government
Revolutionary
- Communists
Reformist
- Social democrats

Fascism

- Rejects democracy and equality
- Centralized government and strong dictator
- Puts nation (or race) above the individual
- Superiority and forcible suppression

State

- As a country: defined territory, permanent population, effective government, and international recognition
- Also, as a set of institutions responsible for making and enforcing collective institutions

Sovereignty

- Absolute authority and power

Failed states

-

Nation

- A group of people who share a common language, religion and historical experience
- Desire to form a political community, usually a state

Third world statism model

- Governments play a strong role in managing economy
- Import-substitution industrialization (ISI) strategy
- Aims to promote economic growth and reduce inequality
- Lack of competition and foreign investments
(ex) India

Developmental state model

- Governments play strong role in managing economy
- Export-led industrialization (ELI)
- Subsidizes the creation of monopolies
-Encourages the export of porducts
(ex) Japan

Globalization

- Not a single process but a complex of processes
- The tendency or traditional political borders to become permeable
- Divisions between people become less significant
- Can be economic, cultural, and political

Modernization theory

-

Democracy

1) Government is based on consent of citizens
2) Majority rules, but rights of minority are protected
3) Citizens are protected from arbitrary action of state - fundamental rights

Democratization

- Process of change from authoritarianism to democracy
- Three stages:
1) Liberalization and/or collapse
2) Transition
3) Consolidation - country does not turn back to previous government

Democratic consolidation

- Broad acceptance of democracy
- System of checks and balances - separation of powers
- Development of effective political institutions
- Predictability

Single-member district plurality (SMDP) electoral system

- Country divided into several electoral districts
- One representative from each district elected to the national assembly
- Candidate with largest number of votes wins
(ex) United States

Proportional representation (PR) electoral system

- Based on percentage of votes gathered by each party
- Seats are allocated to each party in assembly
(ex) Brazil

Referendum

- People directly vote on a particular proposal or a group of proposals
(ex) The recently changed marriage law in MN was partially a result of a referendum