Mod F Unit 1

Osteoblast

Bone building cells

Periosteum

Outer covering of bone that provides support of blood vessels that nourish the bone and provides attachment of muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Medullary

Central cavity of a bone

Diaphysis

Main shaft of long bones

Epiphyseal plate

Growth plate; area at each end of a long bone responsible for bone growth;; bone tissue replaces cartilage tissue and the bone lengthens

Amphiarthrosis

Form of articulation (joint) with slight movement; connected by cartilage

Phagocyte

Process of taking in or digesting waste material by white blood cells

Osteocyte

Mature bone cells made or organic and inorganic material, providing hardness to bone; maintains bone matrix

The ribs, how many and where attached

12 pairs; first 7 attach to the sternum, true ribs. Next 3 pairs are false ribs and are connected by cartilage to the 7th rib

Bursa

Fibrous connective tissue filled with synovial fluid

Diarthrosis

Joint with free movement; a hinged or pivot joint

Rickets

Bone disease caused by a lack of vitamin D in children

Kyphosis

Curvature in the thoracic area of the spine; hunchback

Neoplasm of the bone

Tumors of the bone usually cause pain and can cause fractures

Bursitis

Acute inflammation of the bursae

Rheumatoid arthritis

Chronic joint disease that affects the connective tissues and joints

Carpal tunnel

Compression of the median nerve in the wrist causing pain and loss of movement

Talipes

Foot deformity of one or both feet; clubfoot

Fontanels

Soft spots located between the cranial bones

Sphenoid

Middle portion of the cranial floor that holds the cranial bones in place

Ethmoid

Bone located behind the nose and eye sockets

Maxilla

Upper jawbone

Parietal

2 bones that give shape to the top of the skull and extend to the sides

Acetabulum

Socket whee the femur joins the pelvic girdle

Know the name of the joints, the different types and location

-Synarthroses: joint with no movement; such as the sutures if the head
-Amphiarthroses: form of articulation with slight movement; connected by cartilage
-Diarthroses: freely movable; hip or shoulder bone

Patella

Kneecap

Calcaneus

Spongy, porous bone that contains red bone marrow; has lattic like formation

Clavicle

Collarbone

Scapula

Shoulder blades

Shinbone

Tibia

Zygomatic

Cheekbones

Ossicles

Small bone of the ear

Sternum

Breastbone

Mandible

Lower jawbone

Sagital plane

Vertical (lateral) cut that divides the body into left and right portions

Transverse plane

Horizontal cut that separates the body I to superior and inferior parts; cross sectional

Corneal plane

Frontal plane; verticals cut through the body that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections

Diaphragm

Main muscle of breathing that lies between the thoracic and abdominal cavities

Partial pleura

Membrane that covers the wall of a cavity

Visceral pleura

Membrane that covers the organs

Thoracic cavity

Protects the lungs and heart

Abdominalpelvic cavity

Contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities

Atom

Smallest division of an element

Cell

Fundamental unit of icing tissue

Tissue

Body structure composed of groups of cells with similar structure that network together to carry out a specific task

Organ

Composed of two or more types of tissue that allow it to perform a specific function or functions

System

An organized grouping of structures composed of tissues and organs that perform a similar function

Phagocytosis

Process of taking in or digesting waste material by white blood cells

Diffusion

Movement of a substance from the area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

Osmosis

Movement of a solution through the membrane to an area with a different concentration, usually a lower concentration to a higher concentration

Filtration

Process by which dilutes are taken out of a solution by passing through a partial barrier

HypERtonic

Pertaining to a solution that causes cells to shrink

HypOtonic

Pertaining to a solution that causes cells to swell

Isotonic

The body's normal concentration of dilutes in cells; pertaining to a solution that does not change cell volume

Passive transport

Movement of materials across the cells membrane without using cellular energy

Active transport

Movement of materials across the cell membrane using cellular energy

Cartilage and types if cartilage

-dense, flexible tissue similar to bone tissue
-hyaline: nasal septum
-fibrocartilage: discs between vertebrae
-elastic: ear and Eustachian tube
-blood: blood cessels

Epithelial tissue

Offers protection by covering the body surface and linking the body cavities

Nervous tissue

Most highly organized tissue in the body that is supported by connective tissue throughout the body

Muscular tissue

Contracts or shortens allowing movement

Connective tissue

Most abundant; connects other tissues and provides support of other organs and other body parts and providing protection

Abdominal quadrants and regions

-right upper quadrant (RUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)
-r. hypochondriac region, epigastric region, l. hypochondriac region, r. lumbar region, umbilical region, l. lumbar region, r. iliac region, hypo

Divisions of the spinal column and how many vertebrae in each

-Cervical vertebrae (7)
-Thoracic vertebrae (12)
-Lumbar vertebrae (5)
-Sacrum (5 separate vertebrae that fuses together)
-Coccyx (4 bones that fused together making the tailbone)

Organelles

Structure contained within the cytoplasm of a cell; each organelle has a specific function

Nucleus

Organelle that functions as the control center of a cell and contains the chromosomes

Ribosomes

Organelles that manufacture proteins within the cell and are the sure of messenger RNA

Cell membrane

Wall that holds the cytoplasm and gives the cell it's shape and allows substances to enter and exit the cell

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; substance that carries genetic information. Considered the "blue print" of the cell

RNA

Ribonucleic acid; substance that transmits genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and controls proteins in cells

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate; nucleotide in all cells used to store energy and required for RNA synthesis; the energy of the cell

Areolar tissue

Is stretchable and is found between tissues and organs

Adipose tissue

Consists of fat cells to conserve body heat and offer a place for excess food

Reticular tissue

Forms a network for the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow and helps in body defenses

Dense tissue

Helps Anchor muscles to bone (tendons) or connects bone to bone (ligaments) and forms he inner later of the skin (dermis)

Mediastinum

Area behind the sternum and. I front of the lungs that separates the lungs and includes the trachea, esophagus, and large blood vessels

Congenital defects

Recurring to a condition of anomaly affecting an infant or birth, not necessarily inheritor from the parents

Genetic defects

Occur when the structure of a gene or genes is altered

Matrix

Substance within a cell from which it develops