Muscular system 2

C++ ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum open binding sites on ____

actin

The substance that serves as the energy source when skeletal muscles first starts to contract

ATP

The correct sequence that information must travel in order to start the contraction cycle

neuron membrane, neurotransmitter, sarcolemma, transverse tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, release of calcium

A cell that is striated, has a single nuclei, and is involuntarily controlled by the nervous system

cardiac

Long term actively exercising skeletal muscle generates most of its ATP by

aerobic respiration

The energy sources that cells uses to replenish ATP supply are used in this sequence

creatine phosphate, glycogen, lipids

single muscle cell (or motor unit) contractions (each called a _________) can be summed to create a response that is known as _____

twitch,tetany

group of muscle cells excited (stimulated) by a single motor axon is called a

motor unit

The reason why a muscle cell needs to replenish its ATP supply

to reduce fatigue

The connective tissue sheath around an entire muscle

epimysium

muscle that extends from the pubis to the rib cage and functions to flex and rotate the lumbar region of the vertebral column, stabilize the pelvis during walking, increase intra-abdominal pressure and fix and depress the ribs

rectus abdominus

two-headed muscle in the anterior part of arm that functions to flex the elbow and supinate the forearm

biceps brachii

large, fan-shaped muscle covering the upper portions of the chest that functions to flex the arm (humerus) and can help in climbing, throwing, and pushing

pectoralis major

two-headed muscle that is a key landmark in the neck and functions together to flex the head. If only one side is activated, this muscle rotates the head toward the shoulder on the opposite side or tilts head laterally to its own side

sternocleidomastoid

superficial muscle of the anterior leg and whose functions include dorsiflexion and inverting the foot

tibialis anterior

muscle that is one of the hamstrings and lies medial to the biceps femoris. Its functions include extending the thigh, flexing the knee, and medially rotating leg

semitendonosus

group of muscles found in anterior part of forearm that function to flex the wrist

hand flexors

muscle that forms a V shape under the chin aand functions to open the mouth and also elevate the hyoid bone during speech and swallowing

digastric

muscle that forms the rounded shoulder muscle mass that functions to abduct the arm (humerus) and is active during rhythmic arm swinging movements during walking

deltoid

muscle that lies deep to pectoralis major and functions when ribs are fixed(not moving), to move scapula forward and downward or when scapula is fixed, moves ribs superiorly

pectoralis minor

superficial muscle of the posterior leg and whose functions include plantar flexion of the foot when knee is extended

gastrocnemius

muscle that forms the lateral aspect of the thigh and functions to extend the knee

vastus lateralis

muscle that runs straight down the anterior part of the thigh and functions to extend the knee and flex the thigh at the hip

rectus femoris

muscle that forms the inferomedial aspect of the thigh and functions to extend the knee and help stabilize the patella

vastus medialis

muscle that lies deep to trapezius on the back and sides of neck and functions to elevate the scapula. When scapula is fixed, it flexes neck to same side.

levator scapulae

muscle that forms the bulk of the buttocks and functions to extend the thigh, especially when climbing stairs and running, inactive during walking)

gluteus maximus

muscle that lies deep to trapezius on the back and extends from vertebral column to scapula and functions together to retract the scapula and to paddle a canoe

rhomboids

muscle that is one of the hamstrings and is deep to the semitendinosus whose functions include extending the thigh, flexing the knee, and medially rotating leg

semimembranosus

fan-shaped muscle that covers part of the temporalis, frontal and parietal bones and functions to maintain the position of the mandible at rest and also close the jaw and elevate the mandible.

temporalis

composite muscle in the hip whose functions include flexing the hip and flexes the thigh on trunk when pelvis is fixed (important in walking)

iliopsoas (iliacus and psoas major)

thin muscle in the medially thigh that functions to adduct thigh(hip joint) and flexes and medially rotates leg during walking

gracilis

muscle that runs circularly around the lips and functions to close the lips ("kissing" muscle)

orbicularis oris

group of muscles found in the posterior part of the forearm that function to extend the wrist.

hand extensors

muscle group that forms the intermediate layer of back muscles and functions to extend or hyperextend the back

erector spinae group

muscle that is covered by the gluteus maximus and a common site for intramuscular injections.It functions to abduct and medially rotate the thigh(is extremely important in walking).

gluteus medius

muscle that covers the lateral aspect of the mandible and functions to close the jaw and elevate the mandible

masseter

flat, triangular muscle found in the lower back that functions to extend and adduct the arm (humerus)

latissimus dorsi

muscle that extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheekbone an functions to raise the lateral corners of the mouth upward (smiling muscle)

zygomaticus

the only muscle in the posterior part of the arm that functions to extend the forearm (straighten the elbow)

triceps brachii

muscle that surrounds the orbit of the eye and functions to protect the eyes from intense light or injury by blinking or squinting.

orbicularis oculi

flat, triangular muscle deep to the digastric which helps form the floor of mouth. It functions to elevate the hyoid bone and floor of mouth so that the tongue can push food into the pharynx.

mylohyoid

flat, triangular-shaped muscle found in the posterior thorax that functions to stabilize, raise, retract and rotate the scapula

trapezius

conective tissue band located in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh that functions to flex and abduct the thigh

tensor fascia latae

muscle deep to the biceps brachii in the anterior part of the arm that functions to flex the forearm

brachialis

longest muscle in the body that functions to flex and laterally rotate the thigh(hip joint movement)(called "tailor's muscle).
A) iliopsoas (iliacus and psoas major)

sartorius

muscle that extends from the upper thoracic vertebrae to the skull and functions together to extend or hyperextend the head. If one side is activated, the head is rotated and bent laterally toward the same side.

splenius

muscle that overlies part of the adductor magnus in the medial part of the thigh and whose functions include adducting and medially rotating and flexing the thigh.

adductor longus

muscle that lies deep to the scapula and inferior to pectoral muscles on the lateral rib cage and functions to protract and hold scapula against chest wall, abduct the arm and move the arm horizontally(boxer's muscle).

serratus anterior

muscle that is the most lateral of the hamstrings. Its functions include extending the thigh, flexing the knee, and laterally rotating the leg.

biceps femoris

triangular muscle in the medial part of thigh that functions to adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh

adductor magnus

largest and most superficial lateral muscle whose fibers run downward and medially in the abdominal area. When contracted simultaneously, it flexes the vertebral column, but individually contracted, it aids muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral fl

external obliques

term refers to the time from the onset of muscle shortening to the peak of tension development. During this time, cross bridges between actin and myosin are active which generates tension in the muscle as it shortens

contraction period

segment of a muscle cell is the actual contractile unit of the cell and is composed of myofilaments made of contractile proteins

sarcomere

sheath of dense irregular connective tissue surrounds bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles. Its function is to surround and protect this portion of the muscle

perimysium

sheath of dense irregular connective tissue surrounds the entire muscle. Its function is to provide additional protection and support for the muscle

epimysium

contractile protein makes up the thick filaments. Each protein molecule has a rod-like tail and two heads. The heads link the thick and thin filaments together during contraction.

myosin

term refers to the time from the peak of tension development to the return of muscle tension to zero. During this time, calcium reenters the SR and the muscle, if it contracted, returns to its initial length

relaxation period

contractile protein makes up the thin filaments. Each protein molecule looks like a twisted double strand of pearls.

actin

muscle is attached primarily to bones. It appears to have striations (bands of light and dark) when examined under the microscope.Its function is under voluntary control because it can be made to contract and move a bone by conscious control.

skeletal muscle

phenomenon that occurs when a relaxed muscle is stimulated to contract by several identical stimuli causing each successive contraction to be stronger than the last and appearing like a staircase on a myogram

treppe

Starting with the brain, list all of the structures/cells that a nerve impulse must pass along to get to a single muscle cell

Brain, spinal cord neuron, motor neuron and motor neuron axon's membrane, neuromuscular junction, sarcolemma neurotransmitter receptors

correct sequence of structures that allows movement within the sarcomere to be translated to a bone

actin filament, (dystrophin proteins), sarcolemma, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium (fasciae), tendon, periosteum of bone