Chap. 32 Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary, and Pancreatic Systems Function, Assessment, and Therapeutic Measures

basal cell secretion test

Part of a gastric analysis; measures the amount of gastric acid produced in 1 hour.

bowel sounds

Gurgling and clicking sounds heard over the abdomen caused by air and fl uid movement from peristaltic action. Normal bowel sounds occur every 5 to 15 seconds at a rate of 5 to 35 sounds per minute. Absent´┐Ż no bowel sounds heard after 5 minutes of listeni

caput medusae

Dilated veins around the umbilicus, associated with cirrhosis of the liver.

carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

Dilated veins around the umbilicus, associated with cirrhosis of the liver.


Examination of the upper portion of the rectum with a colonoscope.


A device consisting of a tube and optical system for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity. Can be fl exible or rigid.


An endoscopic procedure that allows the physician to view the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.


Examination of the esophagus using an endoscope.


The use of a fl uoroscope for medical diagnosis or for testing various materials by roentgen rays.

gastric acid stimulation test

A test that measures the amount of gastric acid for 1 hour after subcutaneous injection of a drug that stimulates gastric acid secretion.

gastric analysis

A test performed to measure secretions of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach.


Examination of the stomach and abdominal cavity by use of a gastroscope.


Surgical creation of a gastric fi stula through the abdominal wall.


Feeding with a stomach tube or with a tube passed through the nares, pharynx, and esophagus into the stomach. The food is in liquid or semiliquid form at room temperature.


Yellowing of the skin and the sclera of the eye.


An immovable accumulation of feces in the bowels.


Yellowing of the skin and the sclera of the eye.


Washing out of a cavity.

lower gastrointestinal series (Lower GI)

The use of barium sulfate as an enema to facilitate x- ray and fl uoroscopic examination of the colon.

occult blood test

A chemical test or microscopic examination for blood, especially in feces, that is not apparent on visual inspection.

peripheral parenteral nutrition

Nutrition by intravenous injection.


Progressive, wave- like movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body such as the alimentary ( digestive) canal; causes contents of tube to be moved onward.


Visual examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon by use of a sigmoidoscope.

retrograde cholangiopancreatography

An endoscopic procedure that permits the physician to visualize the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas using an endoscope, dye, and x- ray examinations.

spider angioma

Thin reddish- purple vein lines close to the skin surface.


Fat in the stools; may be associated with pancreatic disease.


A line or band of elevated or depressed tissue; may differ in color or texture from surrounding tissue.

upper gastrointestinal series ( upper GI, UGI)

X- ray and fl uoroscopic examinations of the stomach and duodenum after the ingestion of a contrast medium.