AP World ch 8-10 note cards

Silk Roads

A.) is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers fro


A.) was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.Srivijaya was an important centre for Buddhist expansion in the 8th to 12th centuries
B.)the importance of

sand roads

The Trans-Sahara Highway has a length of about 4500 km of which about 85% has been paved. It passes through only three countries, since Algeria and Nigeria are separated by Niger alone. However an additional 3600 km of linked highways to Tunisia, Mali and

black death

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, killing an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1348-50 CE. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death,


Borobudur, or Barabudur, is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument consists of six square platforms topped by three circular platforms, and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A

ghana mali songhay

was a state located in western Africa. From the mid-15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, a Songh

Indianan osain trade

A.)Indian Ocean trade served an important role in history, and has been a key factor in East-West exchanges. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java

swahili civilization

A.) Swahili people inhabiting the Swahili Coast. This littoral area encompasses Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Mozambique, as well as the adjacent islands of Zanzibar and Comoros and some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. They speak Swahili as their

trans-shahara slave trade

Prehistoric trade spanned the northeastern corner of the Sahara in the Naqadan era. Pynastic Egyptians in the Nada I period traded with Nubia to the south, th oases of th western desert to the wst, and the culuresof the eastern Mediterranean to the eas. M

Great zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo, close to the Chimanimani Mountains and the Chipinge District. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe during the country's Late Iron

american web

and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West

sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD)orthern Dynasties, it unified hina for the first time ater over a cetury of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty.Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui Dynasty capital was at Chang'an . His reign saw the re

tribut system

A.) the tribute system called for people to give cina stuff to represent there supereority then china gave them gifts and alowed them to trade in the city
B.)the importance of this is that people could trade in the chines citys gaining prestegg and other

trung sisters

With Chiese rule gowing extremely exacting, and the policy of forcible assimilation into the Chinese mold duing their expansion souhward, Thi S�c made a stand against the Chinese. The Chinese responded by executing Thi S�ch as a warning to all those who c

tang dynesty

A.)s generally regarded as the high point in Chinese civilization�a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han Dynasty.
B.)this is important because this is when


A.)This empire stretched beyond the borders of modern-day Mongolia. Xiongnu became a dominant power on the steppes of central and eastern Asia. They were active in regions of what is now southern Siberia, Mongolia, Southern Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. R

Shotoku taiahi

A.)was a defender of buddisoe
B.)this is important because it helped bring many more enlisted people ot and unifi parts of china
C.)unifi religen
E.)defender of religen

Song dynasty economic revolution

A.)The economy ofChina under the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China was marked by commercia expansion, financial prosperity, increasedinternation trade-contacts, and a revolution inagricultural productivity. Priva finance grew, stimulating the development o

Khitan/jurchen people

A.)The Khitan people, or Khitai, Kitan, or Kidan, were a nomadic Mongolic people, originally from Mongolia and Manchuria The Jurchens were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th centur
B.)this is important because shoed oth


A.) way of the warrior", is a Japanes word for th way of the samurai lifeloosely analogou to th concept of chivalry.The Bushido originate from the samurai moral code stressing frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and honor unto death. Born from Neo-C

Sila dynasty (Korea)

Silla (57 BC - 935 AD) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the world's longest sustained dynasties. Although it was founded by King Park Hyeokgeose, the dynasty was ruled by the Gyeongju Kim clan for most of its 992-year history. What began

Chiness buddhism

Chinese Buddhism refers collectively to the various schools of Buddhism that have flourished in China since ancient times. Buddhism has played an enormous role in shaping the mindset of the Chinese people, affecting their aesthetics, politics, literature,


A.)The Korean alphabet
B.)this is important because it shows that korea had its own langige
C.)alphabet lerning

Emperor wendi

was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD). He was a hard-working administrator and a micromanager. As a Buddhist, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state. He is regarded as one of the most important emperors in C

Foot binding

A.)women in china had there foot bound to make them prittyer and to keep them confined to the house
B.)this is important because it shows that china had backtracked ikn its freedom of women
C.)freedom confinment


The celebrated Neolithic culture of Hemudu inhabited Yuyao, an area (now a city) 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago when rice was first cultivated in southeastern China. The area immediately surrounding the mode

Chu nom

Chu nom is a logographic script formerly used to write the Vietnamese language. The script uses the standard set of classical Chinese characters to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamesewords, while other words are represented usi

Byzintine empire

Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Initially the eastern half of the R

Kieran rus

Aloose federation of East Slavic tribes in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Rurik dynasty. The modern peoples of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural inheritance. At its greatest exte


A.)was an attack by the christen countrys on jerusilem the holy city
B.)this is important because it was a majer fight between religends
C.)attack religen
D.)7th centery
E.)religen millitary


Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and the Ottoman empires. It was founded in 324 AD at ancient Byzantium, as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 3

prince Vladimir of kier

Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 101.Vladimir'father was prince Sviatoslav of the Ruri dynastyAfter the death of his father in 972, Vladimir, who was then prince of Novgo

European city's

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.In European history, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Many technological, social and cultura


commonly known as Justinian the Great, was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire.One of the most important figures of Late


Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state he founded is called the Carol

system of competing states

Weber's political sociology, caesaropapism entails "the complete subordination of priests to secular power." In its extreme form, caesaropapism is a political theory in which the head of state, notably the Emperor is thet the leader of the entier counlty


Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with the religious power, or making it superior to the spiritual authority of the Church; especially concerning the connection of the Church with government. The term caesaropapism (C�

holy roman empir

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic and complex union of territories in Central Europe existing from 962 to 1806. It was ruled by an emperor who was elected by powerful princes. How much power the Emperor had versus the princes, bishops and the pope

easter orthiidiox cherch

The Eastern Orthodox Churc officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church, and also referred to as the Orthodox Church and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian church in the world, with an estimated 225-300 million adherents,primarily in Eastern and

roman catholic cherch

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with 1.2 billion members.The Catholic hierarchy includes cardinals and bishops and is led by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. The Church teaches t

aristotal and classical greek learning

Aristotle(384 BC - 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, gover


Icons painted on wood were the principal objects of religious devotion in the last centuries of Byzantium. Identified by a Greek inscription as "the Purification," this icon shows the Virgin presenting the Christ Child to Simeon for the customary rite of


Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic, literary, and legal themes and traditions; the heritage of Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic,Jewish, Slavic, Latin, and other ethnic and linguistic groups, as well as Christianity, which played


orcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at thes

cotten textiles

The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 BC have been excavated in Mexico and the Indus Val


A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetable substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. Sometimes a spice is used to hide other flavors.Spices are distinguished from herbs, which are parts of leafy green plants also u


A caravanserai, or khan, or fondouk, also Han (in Turkish), also known as caravansary, caravansera, or caravansara in English or Sarai in Indian subcontinent was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais s

camal saattles

The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animal's back by a girth. The most common type is the equestrian saddle designed for a horse, but specialized saddles have been created for camels and other creatures. It is no

bills of excange

abolished all other forms of local currency and introduced a uniform copper coin based on the coins previously used by Qin. These coins were round with a square hole in the middle which was the common design for most Chinese copper coins until the 20th ce


A compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) - north, south, east, and west. Intermedi


ed by King Park Hyeokgeose, the dynasty was ruled by the Gyeongju Kim clan for most of its 992-year history. What began as a chiefdom in the Samhan c

banking houses

is a financial institution that provides capital to companies in the form of share ownership instead of loans. A merchant bank also provides advisory on corporate matters to the firms they lend to. In the United Kingdom, the term "merchant bank" refers to

minting of coins

mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins for currency.
The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins. One difference is that the history of the mint is usually closely tied to the political situation of an era. For examp

paper mony

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. When banknotes were first introduced, they were, in effect, a promise to pay

hanseatic leage

The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Low German: Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Latin: Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns that dominated trade along

grand canal

The Grand Canal, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, is the longest canal or artificial river in the world; it is a famous tourist destination. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zh


The Vikings (from Old Norse v�kingr) were seafaring north Germanic people who raided, traded, explored, and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia, and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th centuries. The Vikings employed wooden long

long boats

The Vikings employed wooden longships with wide, shallow-draft hulls, allowing navigation in rough seas or in shallow river waters. The ships could be landed on beaches, and their light weight enabled them to be hauled over portages. These versatile ships

camal saattles

.The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animal's back by a girth. The most common type is the equestrian saddle designed for a horse, but specialized saddles have been created for camels and other creatures. It is n

tribut system

A.) the tribute system called for people to give cina stuff to represent there supereority then china gave them gifts and alowed them to trade in the city
B.)the importance of this is that people could trade in the chines citys gaining prestegg and other