Part 1 Terms

popular sovereignty

A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.

seven years' war

(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

Louis XVI

- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

National Assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.

Reign of Terror

the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed

Napoleon Bonaparte

(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.

Code Napoleon (civil code)

Napoleon's set of laws that declared that all men are equal before the law. based on the Declaration of the rights of man

Congress of Vienna

(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.

Simon Bolivar

1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.

Seneca Falls Convention

(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written


A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.


A political ideology whose advocates prefer a government active in dealing with human needs, support individual rights and liberties, and give higher priority to social needs than military needs.


A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Willing to sacrifice one's self

Otto von Bismarck

Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)


A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.

Adam Smith

(1723-1790) Scottish philosophe who formulated laws that governed the economy to benefit human society
"Wealth of Nations


An economic system based on private ownership of capital and free enterprise

division of labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers

Karl Marx

(1818-1883)-German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development.

informal empire

Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the 19th century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China.

formal empire

establish direct political and/or military control over those they rule. Great Britain with India is one example.

direct rule

system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.

indirect rule

Colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status

settler colonies

colonies�as South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii�where minority European populations lived among majority indigenous peoples.

Berlin Conference

A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa

Cecil Rhodes

Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
"Cape to Cairo

Louis Faidherbe

French imperialist. His dream lead to the suez canal. Wanted French control from West to East Africa.

Suez Canal

A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea

Fashoda Crisis

Territorial dispute between England and France over Fashoda in East Africa that brought the two countries to the brink of war, but ended with the Entente Cordiale and diplomacy
teamed up against the germans

Battle of Plassey

1757 Battle that established British control over India

Sepoy Mutiny

(1857) Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; had different interests, and were crushed by the British

Opium Wars

war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges

Taiping Rebellion

(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Qing Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

Sun Yat-Sen

Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
3 people's principals

Meiji Restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

Charter Oath

a document issued in the emperor's name, calling for democracy, equality of class, rejection of outdated customs, and aceptance of foreign knowledge

sino-japanese war

(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.

russo-japanese war

(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.

Allied Powers (Triple Entente)

France, Russia, Great Britain, (Serbia, Italy, U.S. joined later)

Central Powers (Triple Alliance)

originally Germany, A-H, and Italy. Italy then leaves and joins the Allied powers. Ottoman Empire joins later. / Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy