focus questions

how did religions help strengthen political, economic and cultural ties within society?

religions are a basic structure for culture.can legitimize rule and give political/social structures. common grounds make ruling and trading/merch easy.

how did religions promote a sense of unity?

created a bond within the peoplestandardized ethical codes to live by

what are the characteristics and core teachings of Judaism?

monotheisticgod set moral laws of humanityright/wronglove othersten commandments honor Sabbath the Torah

what are the characteristics and core teachings of Hinduism?

caste system (brahmins, kshatriyas, vaisyas, sudras) reincarnation (moksha) ethical/social roles and duties lived by (Darma)

what is a universal religion? where did universal religions exist by 600 CE?

spread and effected everyoneBuddhism, Christianity, and somewhat HinduismIndia, China, Indian subcontinent, South east/west Asia, roman empire, Europe, Mediterranean region and north Africa

what are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism?

teaching of the buddhano caste system/ equal within the peoplereincarnation (achieve nirvana)good karma (good deeds, love/ kindness to everyone)sorrow/ desires were bad

how and where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE?

Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, Thailand, others in asiasilk road activity traders and missionaries

what are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism?

how to restore political/ social ordervalues: humanity, kindness, respecting elders, filial pietyadvocated moral education and good public behavior

what are the characteristics and core teachings of Daoism?

balance between humans and nature would alter Chinese government indirectly leaning and practicing 'the way' the truth of the universe influenced culture: medical theories and practices, poetry, metallurgy and architecture

what are the characteristics and core teachings of Christianity?

monotheisticbeliefs preached by Jesus of Nazareth recorded by disciplesgood morals (good/bad)heaven/hell

how and where did Christianity spread by 600 CE?

missionaries/ merchants afo-Eurasia roman empire

what are the main characteristic of Greco-Roman philosophy and science?

love if wisdomrational thinking- reason and logic less emphasis on godsnatural laws applied ideas to social sciences (politics)

how did religions affect gender roles in their respective societies?

social ordersmost religions emphasized women loyalty to menex: china= filial piety

what other religions and cultural traditions were common by 600 CE?

Shamanism, animism, and ancestor veneration.

how did humans reliance on the natural world influence religion?

shaped live of people within and out of the civilizationfeared/ respected nature because it was the difference between life and death

how did humans relate their decreased ancestors?

Africa, Mediterranean region, east Asiamost religions honored ancestors

how did art and culture developed to 600 CE?

literature and drama, architecture, and sculpturescultural developments by artistic expressions

what literary works influenced later eras?

Greek tragedies and India epics influenced eras such as Athens, Persia and south Asia

how did different societies architectural styles develop?

different building styles seen according to the region ex: India had very distinct buildings than Greece, roman and mesoamerica

what examples of syncretism reflect the classical era to 600 CE?

Hellenistic age- Greeks influenced Persia Buddhism- adopted Hindu beliefs-reincarnation-soul released into nirvana/ moksha-karma/ noble truths

what is an empire and what were empires common during the classical era?

An empire is land conquered and unified by a leader or administrative system.commonalities: in quest of land, wealth, and securitypowerful militaries administrative structurepolitical elitesexpanded boundaries diverse culture a dominating religion ethical and political codes

how did the number and size of classical empires compare to the ancient era?

grew dramatically cause political unification

what were the most influential of the classical era empires?

Southwest Asia: Persian Empires (such as Achaemenid, Parthian or Sassanid) East Asia: Qin and Han dynastiesSouth Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empire Meditteranean region: Phoenician and Greek colonization, Hellenistic and Roman EmpiresMesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city statesAndean South America: Moche

What techniques did Classical empires create to administer their territories?

Centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies.

What new political methods were created in order to rule the larger empires in the Classical Era?

In order to organize their subjects the rulers created administrative institutions including centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies (such as in China, Persia, Rome or South Asia).

How did imperial governments let their population know that the government was "in charge?

military forcenew groups of military groups

What role did trade play in creating and maintaining empires?

most income of empire bulidings and roadsissued currencies

What unique social and economic characteristics existed in empires?

Hierarchies, labor systems, gender roles, family relations

what function did imperial cities perform?

trade centerspublic religious centerspolitical administration ex: Rome, pasargaed, Athens, Changsha, Xian, Persepolis, and Alexandria

what social classes and occupations were common in empires?

cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, and caste groups

what labor systems provided the workers for classical empires?

Corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasent communities and family and household production.

describe the gender and family structures of classical era empires.

Patriarchy gender roles continued as men had more rights

what caused classical empires to decline, colapes, or transform into something else?

environmental damage ( deforstation, desertification, soil erosion or silted rivers)social tententios economic difficulties invasions diseases

What were the enviromental and social weaknesses of Classical Empires?

Deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, silted rivers, and too much money in the hand of elites.

What external weaknesses contributed to the end of Classical Empires?

invasions of neighboring people

how did classical era trade networks compare to the ancient era networks?

grew in long-distance raw materials and luxury goodsmore cultural exchange

What forces contributed to the changes between the two eras?

raw materials and luxury goods better land and water routes

what was commonly traded along these trade networks?

silk and spicesfood cropstechnologiesreligious and cultural beliefs domesticated animals educationplagues

how did trade and communication networks develop by 600 CE?

Land and water routes created transregional tradecommunication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere

what technologies enabled long-distance overland and maritime trade?

yolkes, saddles, and stirrups used for the animalshorses, oxen, llamas and camels carried goodslateen sail and dhow ships help transport maritime

besides the physical goods, what intangibles also traveled along trade networks?

religious and cultural traditions disease pathogens

what crops spread along classical era trade networks?

south asia to middle east: rice, cotton, sugar

what effects did disease have on classical empires?

diminished urban populations contribute to the decline of empires

what was the relationships between trade networks and religions?

religions were spread by trade networks missionaries