human geography study cards

agriculture density

the ration of the number of farmer to he total amount of land suitable for agriculture

arithmetic density

the total number of people divided by the total land area


a complete enumeration of a population

crude birth rate

the total number of live birth rates in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

crude death rate

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in the society

demographic transition

change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population


the scientific study of population characteristics

dependency ratio

the number of people under 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force

doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase


distinctive causes of death of each stage of demographic transition


the branch of medical science concerned with the incidents, distribution, and control disease that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by special causes not generally present in the affected locality

industrial revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

infant mortality rate

the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live birth in a society

live expectancy

the average number of years an individual can expected to live given current social economic and medical conditions. life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a new born infant can expect to live

medical revolution

the medical technology invented in Europe and north America that has diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa improved medical practices that have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives

natural increase rate

the percentage growth of a population in a year computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate


a situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living


disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

physiological density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land which is land suitable for agriculture

population pyramid

a bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex