POE 4.1


Degree of conformity of a measure to a standard value.

Bar Chart

Categorical data graph

Bayes' Theorem

The probability of an event occurring based upon other event probabilities


Numbers or information describing some characteristic.

Data Variation

Measure of data scatter


Amount of difference between a value and the mean.


An activity with observable results.


A subset of a sample space.

Frequency Distribution

Listing of data values along with their corresponding frequencies.

Frequency Polygons

Frequency distribution graph


Frequency distribution graph


Arithmetic average

Mean Deviation

Measure of variation equal to the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean.


Middle value of a set of values arranged in order of magnitude.


The value that occurs most frequently.

Normal Distribution

Bell-shaped probability distribution


The result of an experiment.

Pie Chart

Categorical data graph %


The calculated likelihood that a given event will occur.

Process Control

To monitor and control a process so that the quality of the output/product improves.

Qualitative Data

Values that possess names or labels

Quantitative Data

Values that represent a measurable quantity

Quality Assurance

The use of quality control techniques associated with a process.


The probability of satisfactory operation of the product in a given environment over a specified time interval.

Sample Space

A set of all possible outcomes or events in an experiment that cannot be further broken down.

Standard Deviation

The square root of the variance.


The collection, evaluation, and interpretation of data

Statistical Process Control

SPC is a method of monitoring, controlling, and ideally improving a process through statistical analysis. Its four basic steps include measuring the process, eliminating variances in the process to make it consistent, monitoring the process, and improving the process to its best target value.


The difference between the maximum and minimum dimensions allowed within the design of a product.


The difference between samples.