Chapter 3 Key Terms For AP Hug

cyclic movement

movement away from home for a short period of time

periodic movement

movement away from home for a longer period of time


a change in residence that is intended to be permanent

activity spaces

the space within daily activity occurs


movement among a definite set of places

migrant labor

common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the U.S. and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants


a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralist's and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures

military service

another form of period movement; in a given year as many as 10 million U.S. citizens, including military personals and families are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty that can last several years

international migration

movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence)

internal migration

movement within a single country's borders (implying a degree of permanence)

forced migration

human migration flows in which the moves have no choice but to relocate

voluntary migration

when people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move

Laws of Migration

developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants

gravity model

a mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them

push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale

pull factors

positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas

distance decay

the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less the interaction

step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city

intervening opportunity

the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites father away

kinship links

types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success

chain migration

pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links

immigration waves

phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination


interactions occurring at the scale of the world, in a global setting.


a person examining a region that is unknown to them


physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land

regional scale

Interactions occurring within a region, in a regional setting.

islands of development

Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure

guest worker

a person with temporary permission to work in another country


people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country

internal refugees

people who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee

international refugees

refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country


shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state

immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state


established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year

selective immigration

process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating