Consists of closely packed cells with little extra-cellular material. Arranged in continuous sheets of either single or multiple layers.
What tissue is avascular (w/o blood supply), has a nerve supply, and a high mitotic rate.
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Protection, filtration, lubrication, secretion, digestion, absorption, transportation, excretion, sensory reception, and reproduction.
Single layer of flat, scale-like cells. Locations: lung(alveoli), Kidney, ear. Functions: filtration, diffusion, osmosis and secretion.
Single layer of cube-shaped cells. Location: ovary, kidney tubules. Functions: secretion & absorption.
Non-Ciliated Simple Columnar
Single layer of rectangular cells, no cilia. May contain goblet cells or microvilli. Locations: GI Tract, ducts of glands, gall bladder. Functions: secretion & absorption.
Ciliated Simple Columnar
Single layer of rectangular cells, cilia present. May contain goblet cells. Locations: upper resp tract, uterine tubes, uterus, central canal of spinal cord. Functions: moves particles and/or fluids.
More than one cellular layer w/surface cells being squamous. Locations: outer layer of skin, linings of mouth, esophagus, tongue, vaginal walls. Function: protections
More than one cellular layer w/ surface cells being cuboidal. Location: adult sweat glands, portions of male urethra. Functions: protection. RARE
More than one cellular layer w/surface cells being rectangular. Locations: portion of male urethra, large ducts of some glands. Functions: protections and excretion. RARE
Cells have variable appearance, ranging from stratified squamous to stratified cuboidal, depending on the degree of distention (stretching). Locations: lines urinary bladder, ureter, and urethra. Functions: allows distension
Cells are not actually layers, all cells attach to basement membrane, but not all reach apical surface. Nuclei appear at different levels within the cell (staggered).
What are the 2 types of Grandular Epithelium?
Exocrine Glands and Endocrine Glands
Secretion of products into ducts OR onto a surface. Functions: the secretion of sweat, mucus, sebum, cerumen, breast milk, and digestive enzymes
Secretion of products/hormones directly into blood via diffusion. Function: produce hormones that are secreted directly into the blood stream to regulate body activities.
Most abundant and most widely distributed tissue in the body. Can be fluid, hard/brittle, stored energy reserve. Binds, supports, and strengthens.
What are the 3 major components of Connective Tissue?
Widely dispersed cells, ground substance, and fibers.
Loose Connective Tissue
Fibers are loosely woven and there are many cells.
What are the 3 types of Loose Connective Tissue?
Areolar Connective Tissue, Adipose Connective Tissue, and Reticular (branching) Connective Tissue.
Areolar Connective Tissue
The most widely distributed loose Connective Tissues in the body. Location: subcutaneous layer of the skin. Function: strength, elasticity and support
Adipose Connective Tissue
Specialized for storage of fat (triglycerides). Location: Subcutaneous layer of skin & adipose capsule around kidney. Functions: support/protection of various organs
Reticular Connective Tissue
Consists of fine, interlacing fibers and reticular cells. Location: organ stroma, around muscles. Function: support and formation of organ stroma
Dense Connective Tissue
Contain thicker & more numerous fibers w/fewer cells than loose connective tissue.
What are the 3 types of Dense Tissue?
Dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Most bundled collagen fibers, having an orderly and parallel arrangement which gives this tissue great strength. Location: tendons. Functions: strong attachments of muscle to bone
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Randomly arranged collagen fibers are interwoven w/out regular orientation in one direction. Location: heart valves, perichondrium. Function: provides strength
Elastic Connective Tissue
Freely branching elastic fibers that give the unstained tissue a yellowish color. Stretch & return. Loc: lungs, vocal cords. Function: stretching of organs and structures.
What consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitan sulfate, a jelly-like component of the ground substance?
Collagen Fibers, Chondroitan Sulfate
The strength of cartilage is due to ____________. Its resilience (ability to assume its original shape after stress is applied) is due to _____________.
What are the 3 types of Cartilage?
Hyaline, Fibrocartialge, Elastic
Appears bluish-white and glossy in the body. Contains numerous chondrocytes and fine collagen fibers. It is the most abundant. Loc: ends of bones, anterior ends of ribs, respiratory. Function: support, protection, and flexibility
Chondrocytes are scattered among clearly visible bundles of collagen fibers. Loc: menisci of knee, pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs. Function: support, shock, absorption, fusion.
Chondrocytes are located in a threadlike network of elastic fibers. Loc: auricle of ear Function: flexible support & maintains shape
What are the 4 Types of Tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve
What are the 5 Types of Connective Tissue?
Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, Blood
Bone (Osseous) Tissue
Location: skeletal system. Function: flexible support and maintains shape
Compact or Dense Bone
The basic unit of compact bone is the OSTEON (Haversian System)
Spongy or Cancellous Bone
Thin plates of bone (trabeculae) are present, with spaces in between filled with red marrow. Not visible on a microscope.
Blood (Vascular) Tissue
The formed elements are erythrocytes (RBCs), leukocytes (WBCs), and thrombocytes (platelets).
Loc: w/in heart & blood vessels. Functions: transportaion of nutrients, gases, and wastes.
This provides the movement of bones & joints that result from the alternating contraction & relaxation of muscles.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Skeletal Muscle Tissue (Striated Muscle)
Attaches primarily to bones. Has alternating light & dark bands (striations), and is multinucleated (syncytial). This tissue is voluntary b/c it can be made to contract & relax w/conscious control.
The word for being multinucleated is? The word for being situated at the edge of the cell is?
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Forms most of the heart. This tissue is also striated, but is involuntary. Loc: heart wall Function: pump blood throughout body
Smooth Muscle Tissue (Non-striated)
This muscle is involuntary, has a single, centrally located nucleus, and lacks the cross-striations seen in skeletal & cardiac muscles. Loc: walls of hollow structures Function: constriction of blood vessels and airways, propulsion of food
Neuroglia & Neurons
What are the 2 types of Nerve Tissue?
Nerve Glue". Support, nurture, and protect neurons, and help maintain homeostasis of the fluid that bathes neurons. Out number Neurons 5-50x. Capable of multiplication
Sensation, motor control, memory, creative thought. Transmits the messages to and from CNS.
Conduct nerve impulses to its synaptic terminal & on to other nerve cells.