Epithelial Tissue

Consists of closely packed cells with little extra-cellular material. Arranged in continuous sheets of either single or multiple layers.

Epithelial Tissue

What tissue is avascular (w/o blood supply), has a nerve supply, and a high mitotic rate.

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

Protection, filtration, lubrication, secretion, digestion, absorption, transportation, excretion, sensory reception, and reproduction.

Simple Squamous

Single layer of flat, scale-like cells. Locations: lung(alveoli), Kidney, ear. Functions: filtration, diffusion, osmosis and secretion.

Simple Cuboidal

Single layer of cube-shaped cells. Location: ovary, kidney tubules. Functions: secretion & absorption.

Non-Ciliated Simple Columnar

Single layer of rectangular cells, no cilia. May contain goblet cells or microvilli. Locations: GI Tract, ducts of glands, gall bladder. Functions: secretion & absorption.

Ciliated Simple Columnar

Single layer of rectangular cells, cilia present. May contain goblet cells. Locations: upper resp tract, uterine tubes, uterus, central canal of spinal cord. Functions: moves particles and/or fluids.

Stratified Squamous

More than one cellular layer w/surface cells being squamous. Locations: outer layer of skin, linings of mouth, esophagus, tongue, vaginal walls. Function: protections

Stratified Cuboidal

More than one cellular layer w/ surface cells being cuboidal. Location: adult sweat glands, portions of male urethra. Functions: protection. RARE

Stratified Columnar

More than one cellular layer w/surface cells being rectangular. Locations: portion of male urethra, large ducts of some glands. Functions: protections and excretion. RARE


Cells have variable appearance, ranging from stratified squamous to stratified cuboidal, depending on the degree of distention (stretching). Locations: lines urinary bladder, ureter, and urethra. Functions: allows distension

Pseudostratified Columnar

Cells are not actually layers, all cells attach to basement membrane, but not all reach apical surface. Nuclei appear at different levels within the cell (staggered).

What are the 2 types of Grandular Epithelium?

Exocrine Glands and Endocrine Glands

Exocrine Glands

Secretion of products into ducts OR onto a surface. Functions: the secretion of sweat, mucus, sebum, cerumen, breast milk, and digestive enzymes

Endocrine Glands

Secretion of products/hormones directly into blood via diffusion. Function: produce hormones that are secreted directly into the blood stream to regulate body activities.

Connective Tissue

Most abundant and most widely distributed tissue in the body. Can be fluid, hard/brittle, stored energy reserve. Binds, supports, and strengthens.

What are the 3 major components of Connective Tissue?

Widely dispersed cells, ground substance, and fibers.

Loose Connective Tissue

Fibers are loosely woven and there are many cells.

What are the 3 types of Loose Connective Tissue?

Areolar Connective Tissue, Adipose Connective Tissue, and Reticular (branching) Connective Tissue.

Areolar Connective Tissue

The most widely distributed loose Connective Tissues in the body. Location: subcutaneous layer of the skin. Function: strength, elasticity and support

Adipose Connective Tissue

Specialized for storage of fat (triglycerides). Location: Subcutaneous layer of skin & adipose capsule around kidney. Functions: support/protection of various organs

Reticular Connective Tissue

Consists of fine, interlacing fibers and reticular cells. Location: organ stroma, around muscles. Function: support and formation of organ stroma

Dense Connective Tissue

Contain thicker & more numerous fibers w/fewer cells than loose connective tissue.

What are the 3 types of Dense Tissue?

Dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Most bundled collagen fibers, having an orderly and parallel arrangement which gives this tissue great strength. Location: tendons. Functions: strong attachments of muscle to bone

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Randomly arranged collagen fibers are interwoven w/out regular orientation in one direction. Location: heart valves, perichondrium. Function: provides strength

Elastic Connective Tissue

Freely branching elastic fibers that give the unstained tissue a yellowish color. Stretch & return. Loc: lungs, vocal cords. Function: stretching of organs and structures.


What consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitan sulfate, a jelly-like component of the ground substance?

Collagen Fibers, Chondroitan Sulfate

The strength of cartilage is due to ____________. Its resilience (ability to assume its original shape after stress is applied) is due to _____________.

What are the 3 types of Cartilage?

Hyaline, Fibrocartialge, Elastic

Hyaline Cartilage

Appears bluish-white and glossy in the body. Contains numerous chondrocytes and fine collagen fibers. It is the most abundant. Loc: ends of bones, anterior ends of ribs, respiratory. Function: support, protection, and flexibility


Chondrocytes are scattered among clearly visible bundles of collagen fibers. Loc: menisci of knee, pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs. Function: support, shock, absorption, fusion.

Elastic Cartilage

Chondrocytes are located in a threadlike network of elastic fibers. Loc: auricle of ear Function: flexible support & maintains shape

What are the 4 Types of Tissues

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve

What are the 5 Types of Connective Tissue?

Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, Blood

Bone (Osseous) Tissue

Location: skeletal system. Function: flexible support and maintains shape

Compact or Dense Bone

The basic unit of compact bone is the OSTEON (Haversian System)

Spongy or Cancellous Bone

Thin plates of bone (trabeculae) are present, with spaces in between filled with red marrow. Not visible on a microscope.

Blood (Vascular) Tissue

The formed elements are erythrocytes (RBCs), leukocytes (WBCs), and thrombocytes (platelets).
Loc: w/in heart & blood vessels. Functions: transportaion of nutrients, gases, and wastes.

Muscle Tissue

This provides the movement of bones & joints that result from the alternating contraction & relaxation of muscles.

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth

Skeletal Muscle Tissue (Striated Muscle)

Attaches primarily to bones. Has alternating light & dark bands (striations), and is multinucleated (syncytial). This tissue is voluntary b/c it can be made to contract & relax w/conscious control.

Syncytial, Periphery

The word for being multinucleated is? The word for being situated at the edge of the cell is?

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Forms most of the heart. This tissue is also striated, but is involuntary. Loc: heart wall Function: pump blood throughout body

Smooth Muscle Tissue (Non-striated)

This muscle is involuntary, has a single, centrally located nucleus, and lacks the cross-striations seen in skeletal & cardiac muscles. Loc: walls of hollow structures Function: constriction of blood vessels and airways, propulsion of food

Neuroglia & Neurons

What are the 2 types of Nerve Tissue?


Nerve Glue". Support, nurture, and protect neurons, and help maintain homeostasis of the fluid that bathes neurons. Out number Neurons 5-50x. Capable of multiplication


Sensation, motor control, memory, creative thought. Transmits the messages to and from CNS.


Receive stimuli


Conduct nerve impulses to its synaptic terminal & on to other nerve cells.