Chapter 1 - The Geographer's Tools


a round model of the Earth that shows the continents and oceans in their true shapes or scale.


size or measure according to a scale


a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map. It's when a landmass looks lger on a map than it does on the globe.


The method used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.

compass rose

a map feature that usually shows the four cardinal directions

cardinal direction

one of the four compass points; north, south, east and west


the section of a map that explains the symbols for the map features; also called a legend

Gerardus Mercator

Was a geographer that created a flat map to help sailors navigate long journeys around the globe.

Arthur Robinson

Was geographer who created the best world map available in terms of accurate sizes and shapes of land and oceans


is a disadvantage of using a globe to show the Earth's surface. It doesnt fit in your pocket.


is a advantage of using a globe to show the Earth's surface. Accuracy of shapes and distances of continents and oceans of the earth.

Mercator Projection

It's a flat map, easy to carry around. It is flat. Correct shape of conrinents but distorts the size and shape of large objects around the poles.

Interrupted Projection

Shows the real size and shape of Continents accurately but can't be used to chart a course accross an ocean because it is impossible to figure out distances correctly.

Equal- Area Projection

Shows size accurately but distorts the shapes of regions that are far from the equator.

Robinson Projection

Best world map available" shows the size, shape and distance fairly accurate. However this map disadvantage is the distortortions, especially around the edges of the map.