chapter 4


From the Greek anhomoios, meaning "dissimilar," this sect of Arianism tressed and essential difference between the Father and Son in he Trinity


A ban solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and acconmpanied by excommunication


Home of the Antiochen School


Old Testament books recognied by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, but not by Protestants


Founded by Apollinarius in the fourth century, this hersy denied the existence of a human mind and will in Christ

Apostles's Creed

A statement of belief of the Apostles based upon the New Testament. It is derived form the baptismal creed used especially in Rome known as the Old Roman, and it is therefore associated particularly with the Church of Rome


Third and Fourth century heresy founded by the Alexandrian priest Arius. It denied Jesus' divinity, claiming that Jesus is neither God nor equal to the Father, but rather an exceptional creature raised to the level of "Son of God" because of his heroic fi

Athanasian Creed

A statement of Fait hthat the Church still affirms whose author is not known


Refers to the dual role of head of State and leader of the Church in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. The Church in the East, influenced by teh growing power of the patriarch of constantinople at t


From the Greek word "kanon," meaning "reed" of "measuring rod." It is the authoratatve list of writings included in the Bible and proclaimed by the Church to be divinely inspired


Moniker of St. John Chrusostom meaning "golden mouthed," it refers to the saint's extraordinary preaching skills

Church Fathers

Great, holy leaders who have come forward to lead the Church, exolain the Faith, and meet the unique challenges posed by different heresies

Council of Nicaea

Held primarily in Greek, and concluded with the signing of the Nicene Creed


Gnostic creator god of the material world


Books in the Bible which the Church had second thoughts about

Diocesan council

The governing board for the Diocese


Derived from the Greek work dokesis, meaning appearance, this Gnostic heresy maintained that Jesus did not die on the Cross but was spared by someone else who took his place

Doctor of the Church

Doctores Ecclesiae, a specific title given by the pope to those whose develop,ent of theology and personal sanctity are exemplary


Greek word for appearamce, reffered to heresy which claimed Jesus only appeared to die on the Cross


Heresy that rejected the sacraments celebrated by clergy who had formerly betrayed their faith

Ecumenical council

Derived from the Greek word oikoumene, meaning "the whole inhabited world," Ecumenical councils bring bishops and others entitled to vote from all over the world to discuss central issues of the Church. They are presided over by the pople and issues decre


Latin work meaning "and the Son," it is used to express the double procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. St. Augustine's discussion on the relationship of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit laid the essential groundwork for the addition

Formal heresy

Species of heresy that carries with it a degree of culpability


Derived from the Greek word gnosis ("knowledge"). The name refers to one of the principle tenets of this multifaceted heresy, namely, that salvation may be achieved through knowledge. In the second century, Gnosticism, which had eastern origins and influe

Gregory the Illuminator

Bishop who brought Christianity to the Armenian king tiridates III, which initiated the Christianization of the Armenian people


The refusa lto accept one or more truths of The Faith whic hare required for Catholic belief. It is a species of unbelief belonging to those who profess the Christian Faith, but corrupt to its dogmas


From latin, meaing "let it be printed


Free from error. (Ecumenical councils' definitions on Faith and morals are considered free from error, or infallible, it that is the intention of the polle and bishops in union.


An ambiguous Gree kwork with a multitude of meanings that include: word account, meaning, reason, argument, saying, speech, story, and many more. The Gospel of St. John utilizes the word's complex meaning, referring the the Oerson of Jesus, the Son of God


Heresy founded by Mani in the third century. an elaborate form of Gnosticism, it involved the relationship netween light and darkness, believing that through rituals and sharing their knowledge believers could regain the light stolen by Satan and hidden i


Founded by Marcion in the second century, he borrowed the Gnostic idea of a Demiurge, calling this force the jealous and vengeful God of Law. According to marcionism, the God of jesus Christ, the true God has no law and is sent to bring about the demise o


From teh Greel monos, meaing "alone," and phusis, meaning "nature," this heresy claimed that there is only one nature in Christ and that His hhuman nature is "incorporated" into the Divine Nature


Founded by Montanus in the second century, he believed that due to an outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon them, he knew that a new, heavenly kingdom was imminent. One of the first apocalyptic heresies, his followers lived a very auster life rejecting secon


School of Philosophy which held that the logos was a created being, not the Supreme Being. Platonic philosophies, in general, viewed the material world as less perfect than the world of ideas. Thus, besides denying
christ's true divinity, many early Plato


Founded in the fourth century by Nestorius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, this hersey maintained that Christ was noth human and diving but was not himself fully human of fully divine, instead, he believed that Christ was a union of two men, one human a

Nicene Creed

The origin of the Nicene-Constantiopolitan Creed, ans was agreed upon in the Council of Nicaea


Heresy denying original sin and the need for grance in a man's salvation. According to this heresy, the sacraments are superfluous since salvation and holiness can only be achieved through human endeavor

Pope St. Leo the Great

consolidated papal power through a variety of means based upon Jesus Christ's strongest endorsement of the papacy transmitted through the New Testament.

St. Ambrose of Milan

Zealous defender of the Church's independence from the state. He both counseled, and at times, condemned decisions of the emperors

St. Augustine of Hippo

May be the greatest father of the Church. He fulfilled many roles as a pastor, penitent, monk, preacher, bishop, teacher, and theologian

St. Basil the Great

lived as a hermit while working for St. Gregory of Nazianus in spreading the Faith. Bishop of Caeserea

St. Gregory of Nazianzus

The theologian" enjoyed benifit of philosophical education at Athens, like St. Basil. Devoted much of his theological writing to the Holy Spirit

St. Gregory of Nyssa

Younger brother of St. Basil, planned an ecclesiastical career after a short time as a rhetorician. Deeply opposed to Arian beliefs, St. Gregory was forced into exile bt the Arian Emperor Valens.

St. Hilary of Poitiers

The Athanasius of the West." A Latin Church Father during the period of the Arian hersy, and the leading Latin theologian of his day. He ardently defended orthodox teaching against the Arians. Instead of condemning all heretics, he tried to explain to th

St. Jerome

Translator the Bible into Latin

Theodosius I

Cemented the union between the Chruch an State with his 391 decree declaring Christiabity as the official religion of the Empire


Literally "bearer of God," often translated "mother of God." Used since the early centuries of the Church, this title of Mary was defended by the Council of Ephesus in 431


First translation of the Bible from its original languages into Latin by St. Jerome

Material Heresy

Type of heresy not willed by the subject, and thus, lacking one of the necessary conditions of sin (that the acton has to be freely willed). This species of heresy is merely a mistake that needs correction


Heresy claiming that Christ has two natures but only one will