limits of intuition
I knew it all along" phenomenon
When we think we know more than we actually know.
When one individual is studied in depth.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
when one trait/behavior accompanies another
number from 0 to 1 (pos or neg) relating the extent to which two variables vary together. 0 = no correlation, 1 = strong correlation
perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists
illusion of control
perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are
regression toward the mean
tendency for extremes of unusual scores or events to regress toward the average
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
learning to associate a response with a consequence
learning to associate one stimulus with another
learning to associate a response with a consequence (pos or neg)
a stimulus that before conditioning does not produce a particular response
Stimulus that normally produces a measurable involuntary response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place
a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
after a rest period, an extinct conditioned response spontaneously recovers, but if the conditioned stimulus persists alone, the conditioned response becomes extinct again
tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936). Underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints in psychological science.
the researcher of classical conditioning famous for conditioning an 11month old baby (Little Albert) to fear white rats
Mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations.
Idea that learning is constrained by an animal's biology--animals are predisposed to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. (Instinct)
psychologist who studied taste aversion
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus (classical conditioning)
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences (operant conditioning)
B. F. Skinner
American psychologist who championed behaviorism and studied operant conditioning. Developed operant chamber
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.
law of effect
idea that rewarded behavior is likely to occur again (Thorndike)
Box used in operant conditioning in which an animal must manipulate a bar or key to obtain a reinforcer like food or water (Skinner box)
a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations (ex. mine detecting rats, dolphins)
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
reinforcer that ADDS a desirable stimulus
reinforcer that REMOVES an adverse stimulus
reinforcer composed of things we immediately need (food, water)
reinforcer composed of things that we associate with primary reinforcers (money to buy food)
reinforcer that occurs immediately after behavior
reinforcer that is delayed a certain amount of time (ex. receiving a paycheck at the end of work week)
Reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced each time, resulting in fast acquisition.
Reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced part of the time, resulting in slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction.
fixed ratio schedule
When response is only reinforced only after a certain number of responses
variable ratio schedule
When response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses (greater resistance to extinction)
fixed interval schedule
When response is reinforced only after a specified amount of time has elapsed (ex. studying for a test only when it draws near)
variable interval schedule
When response is reinforced at an unpredictable time (ex. pop quiz)
an aversive even that decreases the behavior it follows
preventing success or development, harmful, unfavorable
tending to repel or dissuade
Administration of an aversive stimulus (ex. parking ticket)
Withdrawal of a desirable stimulus (ex. revocation of license)
mental representation of layout of environment
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
the desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. May enable imitation, language learning, pain, and empathy.
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment
Breland and Breland
Wrote "The Misbehavior of Organisms" which showed biological predispositions that make some types of learning easier for different organisms.
the concept that sometimes learning goes against the innate abilities of species.
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. (ex. onion breath kiss)