Number of Protons, Electrons
Total number of Protons and Neutrons
Electrons farthest from the nucleus
A positive or negative charge to an atom due to a loss or gain of electrons
Weight in grams of one mole of a given element
6.022 x 10²³ particles of an element
Multiple species of atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
(nh)/(2π)n = quantum number that can be any positive integerh = Plank's constant (6.626 x 10ˉ³⁴ J•s)
Principal Quantum Number
First quantum number, designated n.
Azimuthal Quantum Number
Second quantum number, designated l. Tells us the shapes of the electron orbitals
Magnetic Quantum Number
Third quantum number, designated m(ϑ). Tells us the orientation of the orbitals
Used to rank subshells by increasing energy
Periodic Trend for atomic radii
Decreases left to right, increases down
Periodic Trend for electronegativity
Increases left to right, decreases down
3 types of elements
metals - located on the left and middlenonmetals - located on the right sidemetalloids - found along a diagonal line between the other two
Type of Reaction: S + O₂ → SO₂
Type of Reaction: 2 HgO → 2 Hg + O₂
Type of Reaction: Zn + CuSO₄ → Cu + ZnSO₄
Single Displacement Reaction
Type of Reaction: CaCl₂ + 2 AgNO₃ → Ca(NO₃)₂ + 2 AgCl
Double Displacement Reaction
(Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield) x 100%
Rank the intermolecular forces from strongest to weakest
dipole ion > hydrogen bonding > dipole-dipole > dispersion (London) forces
(Mass of X in formula)/(Formula Weight of Compound) x 100%
Used to determine the number of moles present
Mol = (weight of sample (g))/(Molar weight (g/mol))
For aA + bB → cC + dD: Rate = ?
k[A]^x • [B]^yx & y must be determined experimentally
Order of Reaction
Determined by adding the exponents of the rate of the equation r = k[A]^x • [B]^y
Rate of Zero-order reaction
constant rate of r = k
Rate of First-order reaction
proportional to the concentration of one reactant.rate = k[A] or rate = k[B]
Classic example of First-order reaction
Process of radioactive decay
Calculation for determining a half-life
t½ = ln 2/k = 0.693/k
Rate of Second-order reaction
proportional to the product of the concentration of two reactants or to the square of the concentration of a single reactant. rate = k[A]², rate = k[B]², or rate = k[A][B]
The minimum energy of collision necessary for a reaction to take place
The difference between the potential energy of the products and the potential energy of the reactants
A negative enthalpy change indicates...
A positive enthalpy change indicates...
A substance that increases reaction rate without themselves being consumed
How does a Catalyst work?
By lowering the Activation Energy of a reaction
In reversible reactions, such as 2A ↔ B + C, rates = ?
rate(forward) = k(f)[A]²rate(reverse) = k(r)[B][C]or, at equilibrium,k(f)[A]² = k(r)[B][C]
States that within a given subshell, orbitals are filled such that there are a maximum number of half-filled orbitals with parallel spins
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
States that it is impossible to determine both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously
2.18 x 10ˉ¹⁸ J/electronknown as R(H)
Energy of an electron
E = -R(H)/n²
What is the maximum number of electrons in a shell with the principal quantum number equal to 4?
Maximum number of electrons in energy level n
Which of the following has the lowest energy?2p, 3s, 3d, 4s, 3p
List the orbitals in terms of energy from lowest to highest
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p...
Elements in a given period have the same...
maximum principal quantum number
Elements in given group have the same...
valence electron configurations
The change in energy that occurs when an electron is added to an atom is...
What is the sum of the coefficients of C₆H₁₂O₂ + O₂→ CO₂ + H₂O when it is balanced?
C₆H₁₂O₂ + 8O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O so the sum would be 1+6+6+6 = 21
In CaC₂ + 2H₂O → Ca(OH)₂ + C₂H₂, how many grams of C₂H₂ are formed from 0.400 moles of CaC₂? (Ca = 40 g/mol, C = 12 g/mol, O = 16 g/mol, H = 1 g/mol)
mol = (weight in g)/(molecular weight) molecular weight = 2(12 g/mol) + 2(1 g/mol) = 26 g/mol0.400 mol = x/26 g/molx = 10.4 g
27 g of Silver was reacted with excess Sulfur according to 2Ag + S → Ag₂S. 25.0 g of Silver Sulfide was collected. What are the theoretical yield, actual yield, and percent yield? (Ag = 108 g/mol, S = 32 g/mol)
27 g Ag x (1 mole Ag/108 g Ag) x (1 mol Ag₂S/2 mol Ag) x (248 g Ag₂S/1 mol Ag₂S) = 31 g Ag₂SActual Yield = 25 g Ag₂SPercent Yield = 25 g/31 g = 81%
Balance NF₃ + H₂O → HF + NO + NO₂. How many grams of HF are expected to form if 1.5 kg of a 5.2% NF₃ sample is used? (N = 14 g/mol, F = 19 g/mol, H = 1 g/mol, O = 16 g/mol)
2NF₃ + 3H₂O → 6HF + NO + NO₂1,500 g x .052 = 78 g NF₃78 g NF₃ x (1 mol NF₃/71 g NF₃) x (6 mol HF/2 mol NF₃) x (20 g HF/1 mol HF) = 66 g HF
The half-life of radioactive sodium is 15.0 hrs. How many hours would it take for a 64 g sample to decay to ¹⁄₈ of its original activity?
3 half-lives = 45 hours
According to chemical kinetic theory, a reaction can occur if...
1. reactants collide with proper orientation2. reactants possess sufficient energy of collision3. reactants are able to form a correct transition state
The number of undecayed nuclei in a sample of Bromine-87 decreased by a factor of 4 over a period of 112 s. What is the decay constant for Bromine-87?
half-life = 112/2 = 56 st(½) = 0.693/k =56 s0.693/56 s = kk = .0124 secˉ¹
What is the % Composition of chromium in K₂Cr₂O₇? (K = 39 g/mol, Cr = 52 g/mol, O = 16 g/mol)
2(39 g/mol) + 2(52 g/mol) + 7(16 g/mol) = 294 g/mol total2(52 g/mol)/294 g/mol = .35435.4%
Type of process that occurs when the temperature of the system remains constant
Type of process that occurs when the pressure of the system remains constant
Equation to determine the heat absorbed or released during a given process
q = mc∆T m = mass c = specific heat ∆T = change in temperature
standard free energy
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT P = pressure in atmospheres V = volume in liters n = number of moles R = gas constant T = temperature in Kelvin
1 atm = ?
P₁V₁ = P₂V₂
V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
n₁/V₁ = n₂/V₂ n = number of moles
Density = ?
d = m/v at STPd = m/v² at nonstandard conditions
Formula used to relate changes in temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas
(P₁V₁)/T₁ = (P₂V₂)/T₂
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
P(a) = P(t)X(a) X(a) = n(a)/n(t) = moles of a/total moles
Formula for Kinetic Energy of a gas
KE = ½mv²
When an element forms two oxyanions, the name of the one with less oxygen ends in _______ and the one with more oxygen ends in _______.
less oxygen: -itemore oxygen: -ate
When a series of oxyanions contains four oxyanions, what the prefixes/suffixes for the compound? (ex: ClO¯ - ClO₄¯)
ClO¯: hypochloriteClO₂¯: chloriteClO₃¯: chlorateClO₄¯: perchlorate
If 92 g of glycerol is mixed with 90 g of water, what will be the mole fractions of the two components? (MW of H₂O = 18; MW of C₃H₈O₃ = 92)
90 g water x (1 mol/18 g) = 5 mol92 g glycerol x (1 mol/92 g) = 1 molTotal mol = 6 molWater = 5 mol/6 mol = .833Glycerol = 1 mol/6 mol = .167
The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
A species that can act either as an acid or a base, depending on its chemical environment.
If ∆G is positive, the reaction is...
If ∆G is negative, the reaction is...
equivalent to the amount of charge contained in one mole of e¯ = 96,487 C/mol e¯
How many F are required for the reduction of 1 mole of Ni²⁺ to Ni?
the reduction of 1 mole of Ni²⁺ to one mole of Ni requires two moles of electrons. 1 F is needed for 1 mole of electrons, so since 2 moles are required, so are 2 F's.
Standard Reduction Potential
E˚a higher E˚ means a greater tendency for reduction to occura lower E˚ means a greater tendency for oxidation to occur
Neutrons + Protons
What holds the nucleons together?
The difference in mass between a nucleus and its constituent protons and neutrons
mass defect: basically, results from the conversion of matter to energy
Small nuclei combining to form a larger nucleus
A large, heavy atom splitting to form smaller nuclei and one or more neutrons
Elements in group I
one valence electron (aka alkali metals):HydrogenLithiumSodiumPotassium
Elements in group II
two valence electrons:BerylliumMagnesiumCalcium
Elements in group III A
three valence electrons:BoronAluminum
Elements in group IV A
four valence electrons:CarbonSilicon
Elements in group V A
five valence electrons:NitrogenPhosphorous
Elements in group VI A
six valence electrons:OxygenSulfur
Elements in group VII A
seven valence electrons (aka halogens):FluorineChlorineBromineIodine
Elements in group VIII A
aka He nucleus consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
The emission of an α-particle
α decay (alpha)
The emission of a β-particle
When an electron is emitted by the nucleus when a neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton and an electron
β decay (Beta)
What type of decay is more penetrating and why?
β decay is more penetrating then α decay because the electron is 1,836 times smaller than a proton and α particles interact much easier with matter
The emission of ϒ-particles
ϒ decay (gamma)
Compounds that contain only Carbon and Hydrogen atoms
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds
Hydrocarbons involving carbon-carbon double bonds
Have a molecular formula of C(n)H(2n+2)
Alkanes with 1-6 Carbon atoms
1: methane2: ethane3: propane4: butane5: pentane6: hexane
Alkenes with 2-6 Carbon atoms
2: ethene3: propene4: butene5: pentene6: hexene
Have a molecular formula of C(n)H(2n)
Hydrocarbons involving carbon-carbon triple bonds
Hydrocarbons that form a ring are referred to as being...
_____ contain the functional group -OH
Organic compounds containing a C-O-C bond
Branch of -CH₃
Branch of -CH₂CH₃
Branch of -CH₂CH₂CH₃
Branch of -CH(CH₃)₂
Compounds that have similar molecular formulas but possess some structural differences