Unit 1 Human Geography


The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through a common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change.

Human Geography

Deals with the spatial organization of human activities and with people's relationships with their environments. e.g. agricultural production and food security, population change, ecology of human diseases, resource management, environmental pollution, regional planning, and the symbolism of places and landscapes.


A comprehensive product of human action such that every landscape is a complex repository of society. A collection of evidence about our character and experience, our struggles and triumphs as humans.

Ordinary Landscape

The common landscape that is created by populations through the course of their lives together. Ranging from urban to rural and various different forms of structures.

Symbolical Landscape

Represents particular values of aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public. e.x. neo classical architecture of the buildings of the federal government in Washington, D.C., Tuscan landscape, West Ireland.


Used by geographers to apply to larger size territories that encompass many places, all or most of which have similar attributes distinct from the attributes of other places.


Independent political units with territorial boundaries that are recognized by other states.


Sales exist as geographic phenomena may be identified, analyzed, and understood. e.g. 1.) Human settlements 2.) National states 3.) World Regions 4.) World Economy

Sense of place

Refers to the feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories they associate with a place and to the symbolism they attach to that place.


Can be measured in absolute, relative and cognitive terms.

Topological space

Defined as the connections between, or connectivity of, particular points in space. Not measured in terms of conventional measures of distance but by the nature and degree of connectivity between locations. e.g. map of metro system

Absolute space

Mathematical space, can be measured in terms of points, lines, areas etc.

Spatial Diffusion

The way that things spread through space and over time. It is one of the most important aspects of spatial interaction and is crucial to an understanding of geographic change. Occurs as a function of statistical probability, which is often based on fundamental geographic principles of distance and movement.

Expansion Diffusion

A phenomenon spreads because of the proximity of carriers, or agents of change, who are fixed in their location.

Hierachical diffusion

A phenomenon can be diffused from one location to another without necessarily spreading to people or places in between.

Time-space convergence

The rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs. Results from a decrease in the friction of distance as new technologies and infrastructure improvements successively reduce travel and communications time between places.


Places are settings for social interaction that, among other things, structure the daily routines of people's economic and social lives; provide both opportunities for-and constraints on-people's long term social well being; establish a context in which everyday commonsense knowledge and experience are gathered; provide a setting for processes of socialization and provide an arena for contesting social norms.


Important because contact and interaction are dependent on channels of communication and transportation; streets, highways and telephone lines.