Chemical Texture Services

Chemical texture services...

.... permanently alter the natural wave pattern of the hair

Texture services can be used to add...

Add CURL to straight hair, STRAIGHTEN overly curly hair, or SOFTEN coarse hair.

Chemical texture services include...

a. Permanent wavingb. Relaxingc. curl re-forming


Tough exterior layer of the hair; surrounds the inner layers and protects the hair from damage.

The cuticle is not

Directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair.


The middle layer of the hair; responsible for the strength and elasticity of the hair.


Often called the pith or core of the hair and does not play a role in structuring or restructuring the hair.

pH means...

Potential of hydrogen

pH scale measures...

The acidity and alkalinity of a substance

Natural pH of hair

4.5 - 5.5

Texturizers change the hair's natural curl pattern by...

Raising the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft. This action lifts the cuticle and allows the solution to reach the cortex and restructure the hair.

Hair that requires a highly alkaline chemical solution is...

Coarse, resistant hair

Amino acids

compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

Peptide bonds

End bonds; link amino acids together in long chains

Polypeptide chains

Formed by peptide bonds that are linked together


Long, coiled polypeptide chains

Side bonds

Crosslinked polypeptide chains

Disulfide bonds

Chemical side bonds that are formed when two sulfur type chains are joined together

Salt bonds

Weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges

Before proceeding with any service, you must first determine...

a. Exactly what the client expectsb. What is possible

Metallic salts

are not compatible with permanent waving.

Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause what three things?

1. Uneven curls2. Severe discoloration3. Hair breakage

Metallic Salt Test

Mix 1 oz of 20v peroxide with 20 drops of 20% ammonia. Immerse 20+ strands of hair n the solution for 30 minutes. Slight lightening = no metallic salts. Rapid lightening and foul smell = metallic salts

Client records should include a complete evaluation of...

Hair lengthHair textureHair colorHair condition

Purpose of client release forms:

Indicate that that the client knew before the chemical service that there's a possibility of damage to the hair or unexpected adverse reaction.

Client release forms DO NOT

Release the school or salon from all responsibility for any damages that may occur.

During a scalp analysis, look for...

Cuts, scratches, open sores, redness or flaking

If there are minor skin abrasions or scalp disease...

DO NOT PROCEED with the chemical texture services

Five most important factors to consider in a hair analysis:

1. Texture2. Density3. Porosity4. Elasticity5. Growth direction


The diameter of a hair strand


The thickness or number of hairs per square inch


The hair's ability to absorb moisture


How far the hair stretches before breaking and how well it returns to its original shape

Growth direction

How the hair naturally lays

Course hair

usually more resistant to processing

Medium hair

Most common hair texture; does not pose any problems or concerns

Fine hair

More fragile; easier to process


Measures the number of hairs per square inch on the head to determine whether a client has fine, medium or thick hair.

Course hair naturally looks

Thicker and fuller

The degree of porosity is directly related to the condition of the


Has a tight, compact cuticle that resist penetration

Resistant hair

Neither resistant nor overly porous

Normal porosity

Has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs

Overly porous

An indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the individual fibers of the hair in place


Elasticity of the hair determines its ability to

Hold curl

Elasticity is usually classified as

Normal to low

Wet hair with normal elasticity can stretch up to what percentage of its original length, then return to the same length without breaking?


The individual growth direction of the hair causes _____, ______, and ______ that influence the finished hairstyle and must be considered when selecting the base direction and wrapping pattern for each permanent wave

Hair streams, whorls and cowlicks

Two steps of the permanent waving process

1. Physical change caused by wrapping2. Chemical change caused by perm solution and neutralizer

In permanent waving, the size of the rod determines

The size of the curl

The most common type of perm rod; have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger circumference on the ends

Concave rods

Concave rods produce what type of curl?

Tighter curl in the center and a looser curl on either side of the strand.

Equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area

Straight rods

Straight rods produce what type of curl?

Uniform curl along the entire width of the strand

Usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter along the entire length and a stiff wire that allows them to bend into almost any shape

Soft bender rods

Usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod

Loop or circle rod

Absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on the perm rods

End wraps

Extend end papers beyond the ends of the hair

How do you avoid "fishhooks

Double flat wrap

Use two end papers. Place one under and one over the strand of hair being wrapped. Both papers extend past the hair ends.

Single flat wrap

1 end paper placed over top of hair being wrapped

Bookend wrap

1 end paper, folded in half over hair

Step one of a perm

Section hair into panels

Determine the size, shape and direction of panels by

Wrapping pattern and the type and size of the rod

Each panel is divided into subsections called

Base sections

The position of the rod in relation to its base section, and it is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped

Base placement

On base placement

Hair is wrapped 45 degree beyond perpendicular to its base section

Half off base placement

Hair is wrapped at a 90 degree angle or straight out from the center of the section; minimizes stress and tension on the hair

Off base placement

Hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle below the center of the base section; creates the least amount of volume and results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the scalp.

Rods placed horizontally, vertically or diagonally

Base direction

To cause the lease amount of stress to the hair

Wrap in the natural direction of hair growth

Two methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod

Croquignole and spiral

Hair strand is wound around the rod, going from the ends to the scalp


Produces a uniform curl from scalp to ends


Double tool or piggyback wrap

Two rods used, one on top of the other. One starts midway down the hair shaft and the other starts at the end, both on the same strand of hair. This is good to use on long hair.

Benefit for wrapping long hair in a piggyback wrap

Better solution penetration and tighter curl near scalp

Alkaline permanent waving solution

Softens and swells the hair, raising the cuticle, permitting solution to penetrate cortex

Once the solution is in the cortex

Solution breaks down the disulfide bonds through a reduction reaction

Reduction reaction

Either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen

Reduction reaction in permanent waving

Hydrogen is added

Reducing agent used in permanent waving solutions


Thioglycolic acid

Most common reducing agent

Determines the strength of the permanent waving solution

Concentration of thio

Ammonia is added to the thiglycolic acid because

Acids do not swell the hair or penetrate the cortex

Ammonia + Thioglycolic acid =

Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG), the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents

pH of most alkaline waves

9.0 - 9.6

Glyceryl monothioglycolate

An acid with a low pH and is the primary reducing agent in all modern acid waves

Alkaline waves were developed in _____ and relied on the same ATG that is still used today


True acid waves were introduced


True acid waves have a pH between

4.5 and 7.0

True acid waves

Require heat to speed up processing

Three separate components of all acid waves


Most acid waves today have a pH between

7.8 and 8.2

Process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.

Acid-balanced waves

Exothermic waves

Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing

Components of exothermic waves

Solution, activator, and neutralizer

Mixing an oxidizer with the permanent waving solution will

Cause a rapid release of heat and an increase in the solutions temperature

Endothermic waves

Activated by an outside heat source like a conventional hood type dryer

Ammonia-free waves

Use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia; low odor with use

Thio-free waves

Use an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent

Low pH waves

Use of sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites presenting an alternative to ATG

Strength of any permanent wave is based on the concentration of its

Reducing agent

The amount of processing during a permanent wave is determined by the

Strength of the permanent waving solution

In permanent waving, most of the processing takes place as soon as the solution

Penetrates the hair - within the first 5 to 10 minutes

Additional processing time allows

Polypeptide chains to shift into their new configuration

Over processing usually occurs when?

Within the first 5-10 minutes of the service

Resistant hair may not...

Become fully saturated with just one application of waving solution

Under processed hair

Hair is straight at the scalp and curly at the ends

Over processed hair

Hair is curly at the scalp and straight at the ends

Thio neutralization

The process of stopping the action of a permanent waving solution; rebuilds hair into its new form

Two important functions of neutralization

Deactivation of any solution left in the hairRebuild disulfide bonds

Most common neutralizer

Hydrogen peroxide

Rinse perm solution

For at least 5 minutes

Hair is insufficiently blotted

Neutralizer effect is reduced

Especially at an alkaline pH

Oxidative reactions can lighten hair color

When rinsing the hair

Use a gentle stream of warm water

Towel blot hair after rinsing


Adjust any rods that have become _____ prior to applying the neutralizer


Perm solution

Breaks disulfide bonds by adding hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atoms.


Rebuilds disulfide bonds by removing the extra hydrogen atoms.