Which of the following is a true statement
All exercise is physical activity
Which of the following describes experimental design
Can be used to establish cause and effect, is highly controlled
Public health includes all of these areas
sanitation, vaccinations, Physical activity, Urban planning
John Snow is the father of modern
Which of the following influences behavior?
An individual, an individual's environment, an individual's social ties
Which of the following is the most variable form of energy expenditure?
Physical Activity energy expenditure (PAEE)
Which of the following best describes MET?
a metabolic equivalent, one MET=rate of oxygen use at rest, energy requirement of activity described in metabolic costs.
Which of the following is true?
reliability is the ability of a test to yield consistent and reliable results, validity is the ability of a test to accurately assess what it is intended to study.
Usually structured and repetitive
Subjective measurements and considered the gold standard for physical activity measurement
Examples of objective measures for PA include
Select the true statement
Subjective measurements of PA are often the best choice for large population studies
Public health practitioners use the social ecological model because
they can use a top-down approach, can use a bottom-up approach, can target specific barriers
Enjoyment fits into which level of the social ecological model?
Which of the following describes self-efficacy?
Individual's belief in their ability to accomplish a task
Which of the following are constructs of the self-efficacy model?
Which of the following describes motivation?
Only affected by internal factors, is the direction and intensity of one's efforts, can be intrinsic or extrinsic.
Which of the following are ways to increase physical activity enjoyment?
Change intensity, change mode of activity, change physical activity setting
According to casual attribution theory, which of the following describes an external and unstable locus of control?
Which of the following are sources of self-efficacy?
Mastery experience, vicarious learning, social or verbal persuasion, physiological and affective states
Which of the following describes the Transtheoretical Model?
an individual model that includes most aspects of the individual
What is the definition of interpersonal?
being, relating to, or involving relations between people.
Which of the following best describes a social network?
a web of social ties that surround an individual, the characteristic of those social ties, includes structure and context
Social integration is measured by
Membership in organizations, contact with family and friends, marital status, religious affiliations
Christakis main outcomes of his research include
health behaviors spread in a social network
Which of the following best describes social support?
aid exchanged through social ties
How do social relationships impact health?
Psychological pathways, physiological pathways, behavioral pathways
which of the following is true about health behavior?
It is a behavior that is associated with a state of health
How is social integration related to physical activity?
people who are more socially integrated are more likely to PA guidelines, people who are less socially integrated are more likely to be inactive
which of the following are types of social influence?
social facilitation, the Ringlemann effect, Kohler effect
What is the Kohler effect?
Individuals put forth more effort when in the presence of someone moderately superior, dependent on coaction, dependent on indispensability
Who is more likely to put forth the most effort?
Someone in a conjunctive condition
What is epidemiology?
study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events, application of the distribution and determinants of health to the control of health problems
What is a setting?
place bounded in a space and time that provides social stricture and context
within a setting, as opportunities for participation decrease so does group physical activity
When trying to create a setting level change, it is not important to change policy
what is a policy?
standards, legal actions, informal rules
what percentage of trips are made by walking in Manhattan?
which of the following are environmental correlates of walking?
Presence of sidewalks
what best describes appropriate land use?
building communities where land is mixed
Goals of Healthy People 2020 include
reduce obesity, reduce inactivity, increase walking, biking, and other forms of active transportation
what are five social structural factors of physical activity?
social class, age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender
Select which of the following is true
health disparity can be defined as the health differences between groups, health inequity suggests that social conditions contribute to differences in health
Who is often affected by health disparities?
what is the relationship between neighborhood income and physical activity?
individuals who live in neighborhoods with high incomes engage in more high- intensity PA, individuals who live in neighborhoods with low incomes engage in more low-intensity PA, individuals who live in neighborhoods with middle incomes engage in the most moderate-intensity PA
What is the relationship between age and PA
as individuals age, the PA decreases
what percentage of college educated people engage in recommended levels of PA?
Major indicators of social class include
income, occupational status, education
Who is likely to be the most active?
educated, white, male
in order to create sustained behavior change it is important to target one level of the social ecological model?
Approximately how many calories did John expend only from his resting metabolic rate?
(3,000 * .70= 2,100) 2,000 calories
Approximately how many fat grams did John eat?
Because you know what a healthy diet consists of , what would you advise john
Have a better balance of fat, carbohydrate, and protein in his diet.
All other factors being equal, how much weight did John gain/lose at the end of the day?
Gained 0.5 lbs.
The two compartment model in body composition states that the body is made up of
Lean mass and fat mass
Which of the following body composition techniques is most influenced by hydration status?
A high level of physical fitness guarantees a high level of physical health
which of the following is considered the most valid technique for body composition determination due to the fewest assumptions associated with it
which of the following is a primary risk factor for coronary heart disease
Lack of exercise
Regular aerobic exercise does which of the following
increase insulin sensitivity
what is the effect of aerobic exercise on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Which of the following exercises has research shown to be most effective in preventing osteoporosis?
Dynamic and isometric exercises are equally beneficial in individuals with hypertension
For optimal health, total blood cholesterol, HDL, and LDL should be
Cholesterol <200, HDL >40, LDL <100
Which of the following statements about exercise and the immune system is false
High intensity exercise is effective in reducing the number of illnesses.
The energy system used to generate ATP during immediate (,5 sec.), explosive exercise is
The type of muscle contraction where the muscle lengthens as it contracts is
Fats require which of the following to be utilized as fuel?
As exercise intensity increases, which substrate becomes the primary fuel source?
which of the following contributes most to total daily energy expenditure?
Resting metabolic rate
To maximize glycogen resynthesis, the best time to consume simple sugars are
After an individual reaches the age of 60, resistance training is of little use because muscles have a genetic component, which prevents them from increasing strength
Which of the following statements about the developmental continuum is false
The developmental continuum eliminates the need for the study of aging
which of the following statements is true about changes in children through late adolescents
Males tend to have more aerobic endurance compared to females
Which of the following statements about today's children is most likely false?
Today's children may be fitter and today's children may be more likely to engage in PA than when older.
Which of the following is not a performance-related fitness characteristic?
What field of study best describes what Kinesiology covers?
The science of physical activity
which of the following questions would be of most interest to an exercise physiologist?
What makes proper posture
which of the following is not directly involved in skeletal muscle contraction
What is the significance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Chemical form of energy used by all cells
In general, what percentage of chemical energy used by cells during the transformation of energy by the enzyme systems generates mechanical energy (i.e. muscle contraction)
Which of the following does not serve as the systematic circuit in the cardiovascular system?
Why can you use the heart rate as the basis for determining appropriate exercise intensity during aerobic training?
Linear relationship exists between heart rate and exercise intensity.
The two processes by which the cardiovascular system controls blood flow to specific systems are called what?
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
which of the following is not a characteristic of the pulmonary system?
Lung volumes increase as a result of training
what is the significance of determining oxygen consumption?
It is one way of determining aerobic energy.
One of the components of an effective training program is overload. Which of the following is the best example of this concept?
Increase the intensity of the exercise gradually over a period of weeks.
In general, the rate of decline in functional capacity with inactivity (detraining) is greater than the rate of increase in functional capacity with training at a rate of
3 to 1
As a muscle contracts, which type of contraction generates the most amount of force and is associated the most fatigue?
Which of the following is not considered an essential component of an exercise session?
The time of day to exercise
The largest influence on Jack's maximal aerobic capacity (Vo2max) is
Which of the following is not a physiological adaptation to Jack's training?
Increased muscle glycogen
Jack's training mostly involves low intensity, long duration exercise. This would most benefit
Lung volume increase
Jack's legs likely have a greater percentage of
Type 1 (slow twitch)
Which of the following is not a physiological adaptation to sprint or strength trainging
Decreased muscle gylycogen
A 30 year-old female would increase muscle strength primarily via
Hypertrophy of the muscle
Endurance training increases blood volume. Which of the following will most directly benefit by this training adaptation
In general, from which of the following should athletes generate the highest percentage of their calorie intake?
Which of the following has the greatest effects on resting metabolic rate
Which of the following factors has research shown to contribute to differences in body fat