Which of the following factors frequently contributes to nutrient malabsorption in the client with AIDS?1. Mucosal atrophy and decreased digestive enzyme action2. Allergies and food intolerances3. Food infections and poisonings4. Poor choices and unwise combinations of dietary components
1. Mucosal atrophy and decreased digestive enzyme action
Which of the following would be most appropriate to suggest to a client with hiccups?1. Avoiding peppermint flavorings2. Swallowing a teaspoonful of granulated sugar3. Using straws to ingest liquids and semisolids4. Increasing the amount of fluid consumed at each meal
2. Swallowing a teaspoonful of granulated sugar
Which of the following foods is sometimes helpful in repopulating the intestine, which has had its normal flora disrupted by antibiotic therapy?1. Red wine2. Garlic3. Blue cheese4. Active cultures of yogurt
4. Active cultures of yogurt
The goal of nutrition screening for the client under hospice care is which of the following?1. Gather data to correlate long-term nutritional habits with the onset of disease.2. Recognize areas for improvement in diet.3. Identify food-related concerns.4. Distinguish food-handling practices that are suboptimal.
3. Identify food-related concerns.
If a lactose-free diet is required, the client will receive limited amounts of1. Milk and yogurt2. Fruits and grains3. Organ meats and saturated fats4. Eggs and poultry
1. Milk and yogurt
Ms. D has been under the care of hospice for 4 months. For the past few days she has taken only one-fourth of her usual food. Her caregiver is greatly concerned. What advice would be least appropriate1. "Be firm like a parent and insist that she increase her intake."2. "Ask her what she wants from you. It may be just companionship."3. "See if she would take just an ounce of complete supplement every hour."4. "Offer her tasty foods to show you love her.
1. "Be firm like a parent and insist that she increase her intake.
The nurse is working with a client experiencing migraine headaches. When discussing possible triggers, which of the following would the nurse be least likely to include?1. Caffeine2. Peanuts3. Food additives4. Overeating
Ms. N is a hospice client who has had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) for many years. The visiting nurse asks the client and caregiver to relate the client's history of clinical signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The nurse is concerned because of which of the following reasons?1. Often no signs and symptoms of impending coma are shown because of epinephrine deficiency.2. With approaching death, hyperglycemia needs to be steadfastly avoided.3. A change in type or dose of insulin may be required to counterbalance the client's hypersensitivity to the drug.4. Ketoacidosis is particularly hazardous for the client with a terminal illness.
1. Often no signs and symptoms of impending coma are shown because of epinephrine deficiency.
Which of the following would be considered a suitable range for blood glucose in the hospice population?1. 127 to 309 mg/dL2. 400 mg/dL and above3. 60 to 100 mg/dL4. 100 to 120 mg/dL
1. 127 to 309 mg/dL
A client with AIDS has returned to his family's home for care. The caregiver asks for advice about foods to offer the client. Which of the following is the best answer to give?1. "If he is on many medications, he may be permitted only a special formula for nutrition."2. "Give him whatever he wants because he does not have long to live."3. "A well-balanced, varied diet is best unless he develops intolerances to foods."4. "Avoid fresh fruits and vegetables that are eaten without paring or cooking.
3. "A well-balanced, varied diet is best unless he develops intolerances to foods.
Many foods taste bitter to a client. Which of the following suggestions would be expected to help alleviate this problem?1. Adding cocoa to coffee for a mocha flavor2. Sprinkling coarse salt on the fish before baking3. Marinating beef in vinegar sauce before cooking4. Using glass cooking utensils
4. Using glass cooking utensils
Dryness of the mouth caused by an abnormal reduction in salivary secretion is:1. Dysgeusia2. Parotitis3. Xerostomia4. Stomatitis
The major nutrition-related problems in clients with AIDs are caused by:1. Lack of cleanliness in the cooking area2. Gastrointestinal changes3. Low-protein diets4. Poor hand-washing technique
2. Gastrointestinal changes
Which of the following is characterized by increasing abdominal girth, decreasing fat mass in the extremities and face, the advent of a "buffalo hump," and breast enlargement?1. Wasting2. Lipodystrophy3. Opportunistic infection4. Thrush
Which of the following snacks would most likely be tolerated by a client with oral thrush?1. Potato chips2. Flavored yogurt3. Popcorn4. Fresh orange
2. Flavored yogurt
Which of the following roles is most important in the care of a terminally ill client?1. Care provider2. Teacher3. Client advocate4. Counselor
3. Client advocate
A client has dyspnea and has read that caffeine helps break up and expel secretions. The client asks you for a recommendation. An appropriate response would be which of the following?1. Caffeine is a bronchodilator, so it is correct.2. Consumption of caffeine is never recommended.3. Milk will help prevent the mucus.4. Fruit juice will work just as well.
1. Caffeine is a bronchodilator, so it is correct.
Dietary modifications for clients with AIDS are based on:1. Client's food habits2. Physician's orders3. Individualized assessment4. Standards of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
3. Individualized assessment
Every client with an HIV diagnosis should be educated about:1. Fat malabsorption2. Food safety3. High-protein diet4. Lactose intolerance
2. Food safety
Thrush is caused by which of the following?1. Fungus2. Virus3. Bacterium4. Parasite
In some states, a charge of ____ can be brought if a client is fed artificially against his or her wishes.1. Assault2. Negligence3. Battery4. Malpractice
Mr. W, a hospice client, wishes to treat his anemia so he will not feel so fatigued. Which of the following would be least appropriate to suggest?1. Citrus fruits with every meal2. Iron-fortified cereals3. Raisins and prunes for snacks4. Chicken breasts every other day
1. Citrus fruits with every meal
The most plausible explanation for the increased incidence and high prevalence of HIV in the African population is:1. Lack of educational opportunities2. A genetic mutation that originally evolved to protect against malaria3. Poverty4. Increased number of disease-spreading mosquitoes
2. A genetic mutation that originally evolved to protect against malaria
Ms. N is a hospice client who has had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) for many years. The visiting nurse instructs the caregiver to feed Ms. N 30 to 50 g of carbohydrate every 3 hours:1. To show a sign of loving care and concern2. To promote water excretion3. To prevent starvation ketosis4. To spare fat for weight gain
3. To prevent starvation ketosis
A client is complaining of pruritus. The nurse interprets this as which of the following?1. Inflammation of the skin2. Excessive hair growth above the lip3. Severe itching4. Hives
3. Severe itching
The goal of palliative nutritional care for the terminally ill client is to do which of the following?1. Maximize intake of a balanced diet.2. Compensate for malabsorption problems.3. Substitute a liquid complete nutritional supplement for solid food.4. Alleviate discomfort and relieve symptoms.
4. Alleviate discomfort and relieve symptoms.
After teaching a group of nurses about the signs of approaching death, the instructor determines that additional teaching is needed when the group identifies which of the following as a sign?1. Increase in pulse rate2. Decrease in body temperature3. Decreased verbalization4. Fall in blood pressure
3. Decreased verbalization
Which of the following would be least indicative of approaching death?1. Cyanosis and dyspnea2. Polyuria and incontinence3. Muscle weakness4. Cessation of eating
2. Polyuria and incontinence
An assessment question about fat in the diet of a terminally ill client is appropriate if the client has complained about:1. Constipation2. Dyspnea3. Ravenous hunger4. Steatorrhea
Ms. L is actively dying and has refused oral intake. Her caregiver is concerned. Which of the following responses would be the most helpful to the caregiver?1. "Put some fluid into her mouth every half hour and see if she will swallow it."2. "Offer her fluids every hour, but respect her right to refuse."3. "Dehydration is not painful and eases the passage from life. Offer sips of fluid upon request."4. "Let's see if we can obtain an order for an antipyretic suppository.
3. "Dehydration is not painful and eases the passage from life. Offer sips of fluid upon request.