#### PMA Math Terms 1-3

changing the grouping of the addends does not change the sum

associative property of multiplication

changing the grouping of the factors will not change the product

average

a single number that can represent all other values in a data set; mean or median

congruent

identical in form; same

decimal

a number that has digits to the right of the symbol that looks like a period . (to show values less than one: tenths, hundredths, etc.)

exponent

a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself

factor tree

a diagram showing the prime numbers that are multiplied to get another number

round

to find the nearest value of a number based on a given place value; example: 5,673 => 5,600

the sum of any number and 0 is equal to the initial number: n + 0 = n

identity property of multiplication

the product of a number and 1 is equal to the initial number: n x 1 = n

integers

numbers consisting of the negative whole numbers, zero, and positive whole numbers

mean

the sum of the values in a data set divided by the quantity of those values

median

the middle number in a set of data when the data is arranged in numerical order. If the data set has an even number, it is the mean of the two middle numbers

mode

the number(s) that are most often in a list or set; there can be none, one, or more than one

number sentence

a mathematical statement that has numbers, at least one operation sign, and an equal or inequality sign

place value

the numerical description of a digit by its position within a number

prime factorization

a whole number expressed as the product of its prime factors

prime number

an integer that has no other whole factors but itself and 1

range

the difference between the greatest and the least values in a set of numbers

whole number

a quantity that has no fraction or decimal

solution

bar graph

shows different amounts that are compared using rectangles that have different lengths

scale

showing the relation between the actual size of something vs its size on a map, model, or diagram

infinite

having no limit;no beginning, nor end

tally marks

used to record quantity by making marks

frequency

the number of repetitions

pictograph

a type of graph that uses pictures or symbols to show or compare data

key

a list of the symbols used in a map, chart, or book with explanations of what they mean

vertical

goes straight up and down

horizontal

goes straight back and forth

axis

a line dividing a shape or a fixed line on a graph used to show the position of a point

chart

a graphical representation of data

even

a whole number thatwhen divided by 2 it willNEVER have a remainder

ordinal number

a number defining a thing's position in a series, such as "first" or "tenth

odd

a whole number thatwhen divided by 2 it willALWAYS have a remainder

digit

a single number0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

number line

line that shows numbers and their value from left to right

cardinal number

a number that indicates how many there are in a set; gives the quantity

array

an arrangement of objects or pictures in equal columns and rows

consecutive

following in order without interruption

denominator

the number below the bar in a fraction; this names the total number of equal parts

difference

an answer to a subtraction problem

dividend

the number being divided in division

divisor

the number that divides the whole in division

remainder

the amount left over when one number is divided by another

expanded form

a series that shows the value of each digit

factor

numbers you can multiply together to get another number

numerator

the top number of the fraction; this names the number of equal parts indicated

product

an answer to a multiplication problem

quotient

an answer to a division problem

sum

operation

expression

a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement....example 8 + 7

multiple

a number that can be divided by other numbers without leaving a remainder (anything left over)

a number that is added to another

area

the number of square units required to cover a surfaceL x WLength times Width

perimeter

the distance around a shape

volume

an amount of space occupied by an object.L x W X HLength times Width times Height