CNA final exam review

negligence

failure to give care

abuse

to treat badly, to injure, insult or mistreat

assault

a threat or an attempt to commit bodily harm

battery

an assault that is carried out

slander

oral defamation of character
-gossip
-saying untruths

libel

defamation of character in writing, signs, or pictures
-false documentation
-drawing a degrading picture

What is HIPAA?

the law defines "protected health information" or confidentiality

What is confidentiality?

any information that we collect, create, store, etc. that relates to an individual's health and identifies that patient, client or resident is confidential.

Confidentiality-verbal information

-info. that should be passed on to the nurse
-info. that's unnecessary to be repeated
-appropriate areas for information to be shared

Confidentiality-written record

-client's chart is a confidential record
-clients have the right to approve or refuse the release of records

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

wearing protective items: gloves, gown, face mask, when contact with body fluids blood

isolation precautions

patients enter in facilities with a contagious disease, can easily be spread to others

sender

person giving the message

message

images, feelings and ideas transmitted

receiver

person receiving the message

feedback

response to the message

objective statement

information that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled, or measured by another person: signs

subjective opinions

you cannot feel their pain, reported by a client; symptoms
-pain, fear, nausea

Nursing process

1. assessment
2.planning
3.implementation
4. evaluate

nursing process-assessment

collect info. about the person
-cna observation, objective and subjective signs

nursing process-planning

setting priorities and goals

nursing process-implementation

perform/carry out

nursing process-evaluate

if goals is met (nurse mainly)

qid

four times a day

tid

three times a day

bid

twice a day

B.R.

bed rest

drsg

dressing

HOB

head of bed

HS(hs)

hour of sleep

OTC

over the counter (medication)

prn

as necessary

wt

weight

w/c

wheelchair

Tx

treatment

TPR

temperature, pulse, and respirations

s

without

ss

half

disinfection

like 99% clean, process by which pathogens are destroyed

sterilization

like 100%, process by which all microorganisms and their spores are destroyed

asepsis

being free of disease producing microbes

medical asepsis

(clean technique) practices used and precautions taken to prevent the spread of microorganism

surgical asepsis

(sterile technique) the practices that keep items free of all microbes

sterile

absence of all microbes

antibodies

specialized proteins which help our bodies fight off specific microbes

antibiotics

drug that is able to kill bacteria or make it difficult for them to reproduce and grow

communicable disease

disease caused by pathogens that are easily spread

chain of infection

1.pathogen-bacteria/virus (source)
2.reservoir(host)- environment which the microbe lives & grow
3. portal of exit-comes out/exit out of body(like sneezing)
4.method of transmission
5.portal of entry
6.susceptible host-person has it, risk for infection

vehicle transmission

microorganisms transmitted by contaminated items such as food, water, medications, devices, and equipment

axillary temperature

measured in armpit

tympanic temperature

measured in ear canal

temporal temperature

forehead

bradycardia

slow heart rate(less than 60/min)

tachycardia

fast heart rate(more than 100/min)

irregular pulse

uneven space b/w beats

radial pulse

site for measuring pulse at wrist

bounding pulse

very strong

apical pulse

listening to pulse over heart with sethoscope

tachypnea

fast breathing

bradypnea

slow breathing

apnea

no breathing

hypoxia

cells do not have enough oxygen

unoccupied

bed made without client in it

occupied

bed made with client in it

open top

bed linens are folded back so client can get into it

fan folded linens

linens folded down to foot of bed to receive client

mitered corner

angled linen fold at mattress corners

order of linen on "hospital" type beds

1.mattress pad
2.bottom sheet(fitted/fat)
3.cotton draw sheet
4.flat top sheet
5.blanket
6.bedspread
7.pillow
8.pillow case

maslow's hierarchy: physiological

basic for living:food, water, sex, sleep, shelter

steps(form bottom to top) of maslow's hierarchy

physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem. self actualization

supine

lying on back

prone

lying face down

logrolling

technique for turning a person in which the person's body is moved in one fluid motion to keep the spine inalignment

contracture

permanent shortening of a muscle

bed cradle

device to keep bed covers off sensitive toes or skin

trochanter roll

device to prevent external rotation of the hip

constipation

condition that occurs when feces(stool) remain intestine too long resulting in hard stools that are difficult to pass

fecal impaction

condition that occurs when constipation is not relieved; may require surgical intervention

abduction

to move a body part away from the body

adduction

move body part towards the body

extension

straighten body part

flexion

bend

dorsiflexion

bending backward

rotation

move joint in a circular motion around its axis

pronation

palms down

supination

palms up

opposition

touch thumb to finger tips

circumduction

moving ball and socket joints (hips, shoulders) in circular motion

prosthesis

an artificial body part

clear liquid

liquids you can see through

full liquid

fluids that contains milk, fruit juices that are liquid at room temperature

mechanical soft

meats ground or pureed, fruits and veggies are pureed

nasogastric tube

tube from nose to stomach to give fluids, remove fluids

gastrostomy (g tube)

tube place directly into the stomach to provide long term nutrition and hydration

3, regulate body

mineral, vitamins, water