U.S. History Semester 2

13th Amendment

(1865) ended slavery

14 Amendment

(1868) cannot deny rights to citizens

15th Amendment

(1870) right to vote for African American males

Advantages of Imperialism

1. US investments in other countries : opening of trade
2. Military needs : expansion
3. Ideology/Nationalism : Social Darwinist Thinking
4. Religious/Missionary interests

Open Door Policy

John Jay : Secretary
-A policy which gave all nations equal access to China

Causes of World War I

1. Nationalism
2. Imperialism
3. Militarism (Arms Race)
4. International Anarchy
5. System of Alliance

Central Powers

Triple Alliance

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria - Hungary, Ohoman Empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria

Triple Entente



France, Russia, Great Britain and Italy

Causes of the Great Depression

1. Stock market crash
2. Bank failures
3. Reduction in purchasing across the board
4. American economic policy with Europe
5. Drought conditions

Causes of the stock market crash (economic factors)

1. Poor distribution of wealth
2. Many consumers relied on credit
3. Credit dried up
4. Consumer spending dropped
5. Industry struggled

Causes of the stock market crash (financial factors)

1. Stock markets ride in mid-1920s
2. Speculation in stock increases
3. Margin buying encouraged by Federal Reserve policies
4. Stock prices rise to unrealistic levels

The Great Depression

(1929-1930s) The most severe, economic downturn in the history of the United States

Treaty of Versailles

(1919) a treaty ending WWI that required Germany to pay huge war reparations and established the League of Nations

New weapons of WWI

There were many new weapons and technological machinery that were created. Some of them are the following: rifles, barbed wire, machine guns, poison gas, aircraft, airships, tanks...


(1917) A family who rose to power and began to control Russia


Information designed to influence the public opinion

League of Nations

An international body of nations formed in 1919 to prevent wars

Dollar Diplomacy

(Taft) He believed in the advancement of U.S. interests in other countries through this idea. It is a policy of promoting American economic interests in other countries and using that economic power to achieve American policy goals

Spanish-American War benefits for the US

1. US gained control of many Spanish lands
2. Gave the US control over the Philippines in exchange for 20 mil.
3. The United States was able to move into the ranks of the imperialist nations
4. Gave the US more opportunities for trade and resupplying its

Kellogg-Briand Pact

(Pact of Paris) One of many international efforts to prevent another World War; however, it had little effect in stopping the rising militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II.


(in the 1920s) A fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behavior


(during Prohibition) An illicit liquor store or nightclub

Dust Bowl

A nickname for the Great Plains regions (OK, KA, CO, NM, TX) hit by the drought and dust storms in the early 1930s

Bonus Army

A plan composed by President Franklin Roosevelt which intended to bring economic relief, recovery and reforms to the country after the Great Depression

Social Security

Provided a guaranteed income for many Americans 65 and older

New Deal

A plan composed by President Franklin Roosevelt which intended to bring economic relief, recovery and reforms to the country after the Great Depression

Rosa Parks

She was a black woman who refused to give her seat up at the front of the bust to a white man. This small act would eventually lead to a 382 boycott of the city's bus system due to the fact that Parks got arrested for doing this. The Montgomery bus boycot

Little Rock Central High School

Civil Rights activists wanted to give African Americans the chance to attend an all white high school because they believed that they should have equal rights and a chance at education. Whites despised this plan, and would not let any black boy or girl ge

Freedom Riders

Civil Rights activists who tried to show a point in equal rights for all. They did this by riding interstate buses into segregated parts in southern US.


A tactic of non-violent people "sitting in" at public places to purposely get arrested only to be freed in prison. The young people were at the forefront of this movement

Palmer Raids

A series of raids by the United States Department of Justice intended to capture, arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States

March on Washington

(1963) A march of about 200,00 people (white, black, old, young) who came together for a political rally to fight for equality for jobs and freedom

Peace Corp

A service organization that was intended to help the poorer countries and third world nations. It was also est. to stop the spreading of communism

Domino Theory

(1950s-1980s) A theory that assumed if one country in a region went under the influence of communism, the surrounding countries would follow, as well...like a "domino effect

Kennedy/Nixon Debates

They were the first ever presidential debates. Some believed that if it were not for those debates, President Kennedy would not have won the election.

Cuban Missile Crisis

(13 days) The Soviet Union secretly placed missiles on the island of Cuba. Once learning about this, JFK and his administration were trying to find ways on how to remove the missiles; eventually ordered the navy to form a blockade around Cuba. The Soviet

Berlin Wall

A barrier that was constructed by the German Democratic Republic, it was the defining symbol of the Cold War, separating families and keeping the people from jobs and opportunity in the west. This barrier divided Berlin from 1961-1989. It kept east German

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part during WWII

Selective Service Act (WWI)

(1921) An act which required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces

Harlem Renaissance

A blossoming of African American art and literature that begun in the 1920s

Homestead Act

(1862) A law passed by Congress to encourage settlement in the west by giving government-owned land to small farms

Great Migration

The major relocation of African Americans from 1910 into the 1920s to northern cities

Bracero Program

(1942) A program that allowed poor Mexican workers to work temporarily in the US


This became the dominant symbol of American life. Many viewed the car as an emblem of their personality, just like they would with their clothes and hair. Restaurants, hotels (Holiday Inn) and the highway system were created specifically for the automobil

Zoot-suit Riots

A series of riots in LA during WWII between soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youths because of the zoot suits they wore.

War Production Board

During WWII, FDR established it to allocate scarce materials, limit or stop the production of civilian goods, and distribute contracts among competing manufacturers

Reason for using the atomic bomb

The main reason for using the atomic bomb was to stop the war and prevent from losing any more American lives. If the US did not strike first, Japan would have for sure not hesitated to drop many nuclear weapons on us.

Brown vs. Board of Education

A court case which ended legal segregation in public schools

Results of the March on Washington

1. Created momentum for the Civil Rights Act
2. It showed how cruel racism was
3. It saved the civil rights movement

Korean War

The United States got involved in the Korea War because of the separation of Korea after WWII. Their division line was at the 38th parallel. The North became a communist country, and the South, capitalist. Due to this difference, the North wanted to unify

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for e

Nikita Khrushchev

A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis and part of the Cold War. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia


An act which was the principal means for the US to provide military aid to foreign nations during WWII. The main recipient was Great Britain

Truman and Civil Rights

Despite that the main parts of the Civil Rights movement happened after his presidency, Truman succeeded in bringing this issue of civil rights to the forefront of the national attention

Benito Mussolini and Italy

(1883-1945) He was an Italian facist leader who ruled as Italy's dictator for more than 20 years. He eventually made Italy a totalitarian state. His alliance with Hitler eventually brought Italy into WWII


(1920-1933) A period during which the manufacture, transportation and sale of alcohol was outlawed by the 18th Amendment. It proved unenforceable and was repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933.


(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) An organization which fought for the rights of African Americans. Their legal actions included defending those who were falsely accused of committing crimes and protesting segregation in the fed

The Holocaust

After gaining control of Germany in 1933, Hitler used this newfound power to persecute German Jews. His little "minions", which were the Nazis, attempted to eradicate the entire Jewish population in Europe, killing up to 6 million of them.

Pearl Harbor Attack

An attack by the Japanese forces on December 7, 1941. Catching American forces completely off guard, Japanese planes inflicted devastating damage on US aircraft and ships located at this naval base. Approx. 2,400 American lives were lost

War Internment Camps

(1942) For fear that the Japanese Americans might aid the attacks brought on by Japan, the fed. gov. forcibly removed 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry (most of whom were citizens) to desolate internment camps.

Battle of the Atlantic (WWII)

(1939-1945)Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the US to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply t

Marshall Plan

(1948-1952) A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe (approx. $130 billion today)

Truman Doctrine

(1947) President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey


Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that thte people blamed Hoover directly for the depression and financial distress


The launching of Sputnik gave many Americans fear for the fact the the Soviet missiles could go that far. The threat towards America increased; the Soviet revved up their anti.

Office of Price Administration

(1942) An agency in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffe

Immigration Quotas (1920s)

The Immigration Act (Johnson-Reed Act) limited the number of immigrants that were allowed entry into the US. This quota provided immigration visas to two percent of the total number of people on each nationality in the US

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

(1964) A congressional resolution that authorized President Johnson to commit US troops to South Vietnam and fight a war against North Vietnam in attempts to prevent Communism from taking over the South

Malcolm X

(1952) Renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage. He converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter. His beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built


People who take financial risk to start and run a business in order to make profits

Political machines

Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.

19th Amendment

(1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

Johnson's Great society

A set of domestic programs proposed by President Johnson in attempts of elimination poverty and racial injustice

Final Solution

A proposition brought on by Hitler in attempts to get rid of the Jews by murder. He carried this out by arresting and trafficking Jews to the concentration camps where mass killings would take place (gas chambers).

Scopes Trial

(1925) A court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools

Consumer buying

(1920s) The decision processes and purchasing activities of people who purchase products for personal or household use and not for business purposes

China and Communism

Communism will occur within China, without Mao Zedong's support in creating nationalist organizations that involved the study of Karl Marx

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States

FDR Court Packing

An effort to secure the Supreme Court's approval for his programs; by replacing the seniors with people that would vote for his New Deal

James Meredith and U. of Mississippi

He was a civil rights activists who attempted to enroll at the U. of MI. After a legal battle and much chaos, he became the first African American to attend this university

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti

They were Italian-born US anarchists were involved with the murdering of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard during an armed robbery. They were convicted and executed despite the fact that there was not much evidence

Nativists and Immigration

(Nativism) A US policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those who of immigrants

Progressives' Goals

1. Protect social welfare
2. Economic reform
3. Economic efficiency
4. Promoting moral improvements

Tet Offensive (Vietnam War)

(1968) National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties. It was a major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted

Communism and McCarthy

(1950-1954) --- (McCarthyism) A heated campaign against supposed communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator J. McCarthy. Many of the accused lost their jobs or were blacklisted, ostracized, although most did not belon

Farmer groups in the 1800s

-Agricultural societies and fairs flourish under state aid
-Farmers begin to make cheese and market wool and tobacco


A free music festival that attracted more than 400,000 young people to a farm in upstate New York in August 1969

Bay of Pigs

(1961) A group of Cuban exiles, organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility f

US involvement in Vietnam

The US did not want S Vietnam to fall under the control of the communist North. Because of this, the N attacked US destroyers with torpedo boats. This caused the US to strike back with bombs. The chain of events was just the beginning of what we now calle

Communism and McCarthy