SAT Bio II: Animal Behavior

von Frisch

Known for extensive studies of honeybee communication and waggle dance

Extensive studies of honeybee communication and waggle dance

What is von Frisch known for?

Lorenz

Known for discovering imprinting - geese hatchlings would follow him like he was the mother

Imprinting

What is Lorenz known for?

Tinbergen

Known for work with fixed action patterns

Fixed action pattern

What is Tinbergen known for?

Sign stimuli

External stimuli that initiated fixed action patterns

Releasers

When sign stimuli are exchanged between members of the same species.

Fixed action pattern

Innate, highly stereotypical behavior that once begun, is continued to completion; example stickleback male fish will attack anything with a red belly. Won't attack a fish without it; will attack a wooden model with it

Yes

Are fixed action patters specific?

Fixed action pattern

Stickleback fish, who attack other makes that invade its territory. The releaser for the attack is the red belly of the intruder. The stickleback will not attack an invading male stickleback lacking a red underbelly, but will attack a nonfishlike wooden m

Learning

Sophisticated process in which the responses of organisms are modified as a result of experience.

No

If an animal has a short life time, will he have time to learn?

Habituation

Simplest form of learning in which an animal comes to ignore* a persistent stimulus so it can go about its business.

Associative learning

Learning in which one stimulus becomes linked to another through experience.
ex. classical and operant conditioning

Classical conditioning

What is Ivan Pavlov associated with?

Classical conditioning

Type of associative learning where an organism learns to initiate a response to a stimulus different than the original.
ex. Dogs learning to salivate upon hearing the sound of a bell although no food was present

Operant conditioning

Type of associative learning also called "trial and error learning" An animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with reward or punishment and then repeats or avoids that behavior.

Operant conditioning

What is B.F. Skinner associated with?

Operant conditioning

What's another word for "trial and error" learning?

Imprinting

Learning that occurs during a sensitive or critical period in the early life of an individual and is irreversible for the length of that period.

Social behavior

Any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species.
ex. cooperation, agonistic, dominance hierarchies, territoriality, altruism

Cooperation

Social behavior that enables individuals to carry out a behavior, such as hunting, which they can do as a group more successfully that alone.

Agnostic behavior

Social behavior that is aggressive and involves a variety of threats or actual combat to settle disputes between individuals, usually over food, mates, or shelter. Involves both aggressive and ritualistic or symbolic behavior.

Dominance hierarchies

Social behavior that is a pecking order behavior that dictates that social position of an animal in a culture.
ex. Hens

Pecking order

The organization of people at different ranks
ex. alpha hen, beta hen

Territory

Area in which an organism defends and from which other members of the community are excluded. Are established and defended by agonistic behaviors.

Altruism

Behavior that reduces an individual's reproductive fitness (the animal may die) while increasing the fitness of the group or family.
ex. worker bees dying to sting an intruder

Kin selection

The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection

Habituation

Initially, the ameba moved away from the strong light; but after a while, it resumed its normal movement pattern,

Operant conditioning

Way in which dogs are trained

Operant conditioning

Reward or punishment learning