What is the scientific revolution?

a new way of thinking about the natural world

What was the scientific revolution based on?

careful observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs

Scholars replaced ____________________ with _________________, and launched a change in European thought that historians call the Scientific Revolution

old assumptions, new theories

What is the scientific method?

a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas

The Scientific Method was a new approach to science based on the revolutionary thinking of who?

Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo

What are the steps of the scientific method?

- begins with a problem arising from an observation - a hypothesis is formed - a hypothesis is tested in the experiment or on the basis of data- data is analyzed and interpreted - hypothesis either confirmed or disproved


social critics, french word for philosophers, applied reason to life

What are philosophes 5 core beliefs?

reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty


truth can be discovered through reason or logical thinking


what is natural was also good and reasonable


instead of searching for joy just in the afterlife, urged to seek well being on earth


stressed that society and human mankind could improve


liberties and rights that english had won in their revolution of the bill of rights

Who wrote the declaration of independence?

thomas jefferson


a pen name for one of the most famous philosphes- published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama- often used satire against his opponents- made frequent targets of the clergy, aristocracy, and the government - was sent to jail twice and then exiled to england

First estate owned how much land?


Who formed the first estate?


What were members of the first estate's privileges?

- access to high offices and exemptions from paying taxes

How did people of the First Estate view the Enlightenment?


What percent of the population lived in the Second Estate?


What percent of the land did the Second Estate own?


Who made up the second estate?

rich nobles

How did the Second Estate feel about Enlightenment ideas?

they disagreed about them

Third Estate was what percent of the population?


What are the three groups within each estate?

urban lower classpeasantsbourgeoise

Who was the french king that extravagantly spent money?

King Louis XVI

Who made up the bourgeoise?

the middle class- bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans

Characteristics of the bourgeoise?

- often well educated- believed strongly in the Enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality - paid high taxes and lacked privileges even though some were as rich as nobles


- sent on the left side of the meeting hall: oppose the idea of monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in the way the government was run


- sat on the right side of the meeting hall: upheld the idea of limited monarchy and wanted few changes in the government


- sat in the center of the meeting hall: wanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicals

Tennis Court Oath

- when third estate delegates found themselves locked out of their meeting room, they broke down a door to an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution

Reign of Terror

- when Robspeirre governed France - he was considered a dictator for the period of his rule and it became known as this


- parents sent him to milotary school when he was 9- when the french revolution broke out he joined the army of the new government - was hailed savior of the french republic and became hero of the hour in paris

Napoleon's sudden seizure of power is known as what?

coup d'tetat

Triple Entente

Great Britain, France, and Russia

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy

Who saw France as a threat to peace and was a leader in Germany?

Otto von Bismarck

What is trenchwarfare?

- armies fought each other from trenches - armies traded huge loses of human life for pitifully small land gains

Schleiffen Plan called for what?

attacking and defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia

Why did Germany think they could carry out the Schlieffen Plan?

because Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe in its railroad system and thus would take longer to supply its front lines

Who sunk the Lusitania?

A german U-boat or submarine

Lusitania was a ________________

British passenger ship.... was secretly carrying weapons

How many people were left dead when Lusitania was sunk?

1,198 (128 US citizens)

Battle on Eastern front?

- Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians

Western Front Battle?

- the deadlock region in northern france - fighting between Germans and French

When did World War 1 come to an end?

November 11, 1918

How did WW1 come to an end?

when an armistice was signed between France and Germany

Who drew up the 14 points?

Woodrow Wilson

What is the 14 pints?

they outlined a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace

Paris Peace Conference

- Britain and France showed little signs of agreeing to Wilson- they were concerned with national security - the compromise reached was the Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles created what?

League of Nations


Article 231 placed all the blame on Germany and they had to pay massive reparations to the allies

Albert Einstein

- German born physicist - theory of relativity - relative motion is the key to his ideas


- Austrian physician - studied human mind and treated patients with psychological problems- thought that much of human behavior was irrational or beyond reason


bold colorsexaggerated forms

Kellogg Briand Pact

Nearly every country signed this that promised to "renounce war as an instrument of national policy

What are some of the causes of the US economy weakening?

overproduction, consumers were buying less, uneven distribution of wealth

What were the two main focuses of facism?

military force and extreme nationalism

Fascism was a new political movement that emphasized loyalty to the _______ and obedience as its __________

state, leader

Who outlawed democracy and all political parties except for fascism?

Benito Mussolini

Mussolini what did he do? what did he promise?

- a newspaper editor - politician - promised to rescue italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces

Who's idea was the New Deal?


What was the reason for the New Deal?

create jobs and public works

What weakened the League of nations?

the US's refusal to join

The League of Nations was the enforcer of what?

Kellogg briand pact- but the League had no armed forces

Hitler's secret police that shocked German's into total obedience


Treaty of Versailles and Germany

- limited the size of Germany's army- Hitler had long pledged to undo this treaty - Germany wouldn't obey the restrictions the treaty set

Congress passed how many neutrality acts? what did they do?

3- banned loans and the sending of arms to nations at war

Why was the Warsaw Pact formed?

Soviet Union saw NATO as a threat

What 8 countries belonged to the Warsaw Pact?

Soviet Union, East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Albania

What was the intention of the UN?

To protect its members from aggression

Where was the UN based?

New York

Who belonged to the UN?

Soviet Union, US, and 48 other countries

Marshall plan was an assistance program that provided what?

food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe

Who met at the Yalta Agreement?

US, Soviet Union, and Britain

What was agreed upon at the Yalta Agreement/

to divide Germany into zones of occupation controlled by allied forces/ Germany would also have to pay the Soviet Union to compensate for their loss of life and property

Who was the commander when the UN planned to send an international force to Korea to stop invasion- a total of 15 nations

Douglas MacArthur

Who was a vietnamese nationalist that turned to communists for help in his struggle?

Ho Chi Minh

Pol Pot wanted to transform what into a communist government?


Cambodia adopted a democratic constitution and held free elections after who withdrew?


37th/38th parallel

38th parallel: line that crossed the border between North Korea and South Korea prior to the Korean War37th parallel: after war border

Attempt to increase food production worldwide

Green Revolution

How did scientists hop to accomplish the Green Revolution?

using pesticides and fertilizers

The difference between men and women in terms of wealth and status

gender inequality

What was the goal of the international space station?

to establish and maintain a working laboratory for scientific experimentation in space

Who sponsored the international space station?

US, Russia, and 14 other nations

Developed nations

- manufacturing jobs moved out of here- with industrialization, transportation, and business facilities for advanced production of manufactured goods

Emerging nations

- jobs moved here - in the process of industrialization- became prime locations for new manufacturing operations - workers here could work for less money then developed nations


-clothing: blue jeans choice of most youth and western business suits are standard uniform -hamburgers and soft drinks


- computers: people could work from home - phones: people could communicate from long distances - music: portable and easily accessed - TV: front row seat to sporting events- internet, blogs, social networking

effects of cold war

- led to an increase in the production of goods and services to that mnay nations benefited - economic base of some nations shifted, the need for "knowledged workers" grew

goal of UN

- to promote world peace: provides a public forum, private meeting places, and skilled mediators to try to help nations resolve conflicts at any stage in their development, provide peacekeeping forces

refers to the greatly increase output of machine goods that began in england in the middle 1700s, machines took over jobs, brought unfair worker wages

industrial revolution

Average Work Week

- average worker spent 14 hours a day at the job, 6 days a week- didnt change with seasons

Manchester England

- had access to waterpower and available labor - a leading example of the new industrial industry - had a rapid unplanned growth

own corporations and share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts. people who bought stock were part owners of these businesses that old shares of stock


limited workday to ten hours for women and children who worked in factories

ten hours act

was a result of parliament's findings of child labor and working conditions in factoris and mills.

factory act

what were the laws set within the factory act?

- made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old - children from ages of 9 to 12 could not work for more than 8 hours a day - young people from 13 to 17 couldn't work for more than 12 hours

prevented women and children from working underground?

mine act

the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all


people should judge ideas institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or uselfulness. led to reforms in the legal system as well as education


main idea was that society was composed of competing classes- predicted that workers would overthrow the owners of businesses and that something would overthrow the bourgeoise

Karl Marx

developed the laws of natural economics: law of competition, law of supply and demand, law of self-interest

Adam Smith

what was the role of women in war?

thousands of women replaced men in factories, offices, and shops- they kept troops supplied with food, clothing, and weapons - some worked on the frontlines as nurses

can serve as a unifying force within a country, can cause intense competition among nations, a deep devotion to one's nations


the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war