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stool guaiac

test to reveal hidden blood in feces

serum bilirubin

measurement of bile pigment in the blood

abdominal ultrasonography

sound waves are used to image abdominal organs

HIDA scan

radioactive imaging procedure that tracks the production and flow of bile from the liver and gallbladder to the intestine

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

contrast material is injected through an endoscope and xrays are taken of the pancreas and bile ducts

liver biopsy

percutaneous removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic analysis

barium enema

x-ray examination of the lower gastrointestinal tract

CT of the abdomen

transverse x-ray pictures of abdominal organs

upper gastrointestinal series

x-ray images of esophagus , stomach and small intestine after administration of barium by mouth

stool culture

feces are placed in a growth medium for bacterial analysis

-stenosis

tightening . narrowing , stricture

-emesis

vomiting

-ptysis

spitting

-rrhage, rrhagia

bursting forth of blood

-pepsia

digestion

-plasty

surgical repair

-ectasis, -ectasia

stretching , dilation, widening

-spasm

involuntary contraction of muscles

-stasis

stopping

-phagia

eating , swallowing

-rrhea

flow, discharge

-rrhaphy

suture

cecal volvulus

twisting of the first portion of the large ingtestine

cheilosis

abnormal condition of lips

choledochal

inflammation of bile vessels

cholecystectomy

excision of the gallbladder

colonscopy

visual examination of the large intestine

duodenal

pertaining to the first portion of the small intestine

choleithiasis

abnormal condition of gallstones

autoimmune condition in which villi in the small intestine are damged

celiac disease

excision of the large intestine

colectomy

pertaining to the cheek

buccal

tooth pain

dentalgia

diverticulosis

abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall

aphthous stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth with small , painful ulcers

esophageal varices

swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus

esophageal cancer

malignant tumor of the esophagus

gastroesophageal reflux disease

solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach

crohns disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract tract

anal fistula

abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus

dental caries

tooth decay

colonic polyps

benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane of the large intestine

colorectal cancer

adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both

gastric cancer

malignant tumor of the stomach

dysentery

painful, inflamed intestines

sarc/o

flesh

ophthalm/o

eye

psych/o

mind

ur/o

urinary tract

radi/o

x-rays

oste/o

bone

rhin/o

nose

sect/o

to cut

onc/o

tumor

path/o

disease

thromb/o

clotting

ren/o

kidney

oncologist

physician who specializes in drug treatment of cancerous tumors

hematoma

mass or collection of blood

opthalmoscope

an instrument to visually examine the eye

carcinogenic

pertaining to producing cancer

hyperglycemia

high blood sugar, diabetes mellitus

adenopathy

disease of a gland

arthralgia

pain of a joint

leukemia

increase in abnormal, immature white blood cells, a malignant condition

gastrotomy

incision of the stomach

erythrocyte

blood cell that carries oxygen

pathologist

a physician who examines dead bodies to determine the cause of death

leukocytosis

slight increase in numbers of white blood cells as response to infection

prognosis

prediction about the outcome of treatment

nephroectomy

resection of a kidney

iatrogenic

pertaining to an abnormal condition produced by a treatment

osteitis

inflammation of bone

thrombocyte

a platelet

biopsy

microscopic examination of living tissue

cystoscopy

process of visual examination of the urinary bladder

karyotype

picture of nuclear structures

chondrosarcoma

malignant tumor of connective tissue

tracheal

pertaining to the windpipe

transverse plane

divides the body horizontally

chromosomes

rod-shaped nuclear structures

urethra

tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

histology

study of tissues

inguinal

pertaining to the groin

pharynx

throat

visceral

pertaining to internal organs

sagittal plane

divides the body laterally into the right and left parts

umbilical

pertaining to the navel

larynx

voicebox

mitochondria

cystoplasmic structures where catabolism takes place

pituitary gland

secretory organ at the base of the brain

cartilage

flexible connective tissue joints

adipose

pertaining to fat tissue

craniotomy

incision to the skull

thyroid gland

secretory organ in the neck

necrosis

abnormal condition of death cells

laryngeal

pertaining to the voicebox

cardiomyopathy

disease of heart muscle

peritoneal

pertaining to the membrane surrounding the abdomen

angiogenesis

formation of blood vessels

thrombocytopenia

deficiency of clotting cells

mascetomy

resection of a breast

acrophobia

fear of heigths

cystocele

hernia of the urinary bladder

otalgia

ear pain

tracheostomy

new opening of the windpipe to the outside of the body

metastasis

spread of malignant tumor

electroecncephalography

record of the electricity in the brain

blepharoptosis

prolapse of an eyelid

hemolysis

destruction of blood (RBC'S)

hydronephrosis

abnormal condition of fluid in the kidney

laparotomy

incision of the abdomen

ischemia

holding back blood from tissues

anoxia

condition of no oxygen

parathyroid

four endocrine glands in the neck region

hemiglossectomy

removal of half of the tongue

adrenal

two endocrine glands, each above a kidney

anitoxin

a substance that acts against a poison

transurethral

pertaining to through the tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body

benign

harmless, noncancerous

pancytopenia

condition of deficiency of all blood cells

neoplasm

new growth (tumor)

tachypnea

rapid breathing

hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin

bradycardia

condition of slow heartbeat

euphoria

feeling of well-being

contralateral

pertaining to the opposite side

intercostal

pertaining to between the ribs

endotracheal

pertaining to within the windpipe

periosteum

membrane surrounding a bone

abduction

carrying away from the body

infracostal

pertaining to below a rib

hydrochloric acid

substance produced by the stomach and necessary for digestion of foods

emulsification

physical process of breaking down large fat globules into smaller parts

mastication

chewing

deglutition

swallowing

amylase

an enzyme that digests starch

amino acids

small substances that are produced when proteins are digested

feces

solid waste, stool

lipase

pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

pulp

soft inner tissue within a tooth contaning nerves and blood vessels

common bile duct

tube thatt carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the duodenum

glucose

simple sugar

peristalsis

rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the alimentary tract

insulin

hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas

papillae

small nipple -like elevations in the tongue

villi

tiny microscopic projections in the walls of small intestine

uvula

soft tissue structure hanging from the roof of the mouth

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscle at the distal region of the stomach

billirubin

pigment release by the liver in the bile

constipation

difficult delayed elimination of feces

melena

black tarry stools, feces contaning blood

dysphagia

diffuculty in swallowing

nausea

unpleasant sensation from the stomach with tendency to vomit

jaundice

yellow-orange coloration of the skin,icterus

steatorrhea

feces containing fat

diarrhea

loose, liquid feces

flatus

gas expelled through the anus

hematochezia

passage of fresh , bright red blood from the rectum

borborygmus

rumbling or gurgling noises produced by the movement of gas or fluid

ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

anorexia

lack of appetite

periodontal disease

inflammation and degeneration of gums

cirrhosis

chronic liver disease, etiology if often alcoholism and malnutrition

cholecystolithiasis

gallbladder calculi

volvulus

twisting of the intestine upon itself

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammation of the large bowel with open sores of mucous membrane

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver, viral etiology

pancreaitis

inflammation of a gland behind the stomach, cysts may form

gastroesophageal relux disease

solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach

diverticulitis

inflammation of the small side pockets in the intestinal wall

ileus

loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines

intussuspecion

telescoping of the intestines

peptic ulcer

sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the first part of the small intestine

aphthous stomatis

inflammation of the mouth with open sores

crohn disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract

colonic plyposis

small benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane of the large bowel

defecation

removal of waste material from the body

enamel

hard outermost layer of a tooth