ISC 491 Readings

Pyramid Model (AIDA, Old Model)


Hourglass Model (New)


Circle Model

-Connection (online, website, email, direct mail, events)
-Satisfaction (product + brand identity, do you feel like part of a community?)
-Retention (lifetime value/long-term relationships)
-Advocacy (Dove body image campaign, Old

Customer Nurturing

Process of building effective relationships with potential customers throughout the buying journey.

Key elements of Customer Nurturing

-Strategic & Impactful


-Only with trust will buyers let your communications pass their filters and enter their lives.
- Set expectations during an opt-in process, and then fulfill those expectations with every communication you share.
-This kind of communication has lower bounc


-Knowing who your audience is and what they want from your communication.
-Impersonal and poorly timed messages make your subscribers think:
--"you don't know who I am, you don't know what I want, you just don't get me."
-Being relevant means sending the


-Today's buyers move seamlessly, and quickly, across channels.
-A buyer moves quickly from email, to social media, to your website, and then back to social media in the blink of an eye.
-Marketers not only need to prepare their customer nurturing strategy

Quantitative Objectives

Goals you can measure
-Even if you aren't sure what your metrics should be initially, setting estimates up front helps you define your program, quantitative goals help define success and determine scope and scale of your overall customer nurturing efforts

Qualitative Objectives

The business outcomes you hope to get from setting up customer nurture tracks

Technology Selection

-An engagement marketing platform is the technology that allows companies to streamline, automate, and measure marketing tasks and workflows so they can increase operational efficiency and grow revenue faster.
-One of the key components of your engagement

Purchasing Process

1. Write down your goals for the project
2. Plan your timeline
3. Identify your requirements
4. Assemble a team to choose and manage the solution
5. Evaluate the potential vendors against your scenarios
6. Talk to references
7. Make a decision

Communication Timing

-Determine your overall communication cadence
-Consider the length of the buying process and the communication

Marketing Calendars

-Holistic view of all communications with our database across the entire marketing department - we can see event invites, nurture emails, demand generation emails, etc. --Use a holistic view to see exactly who is being communicated with and when.

Customer Fit

-Based on observable or directly shared information
-Demographics (age, gender, location, income, etc)

Customer Interest

-Tracing consumer behavior
-Interest scores tell you how attractive you are to a potential customer
-Also means inferring additional information about a customer based on the quality of data you have, like an IP address

List Building

-In order to successfully nurture customers, you need to grow your list of engaged subscribers and collect contact information for your database.
-According to Moon Marketing, you lose up to 25% of subscribers each year due to email attrition, and not all

Multi-channel Customer Nurturing

Nurturing in a Multi-Channel World: Today's consumer moves seamlessly, sometimes even quickly, across digital and offline channels

Customer Nurturing Segmentation

Why do you need segmentation: Segmenting your audience, the act of dividing your customers into definable and actionable parts, is essential to your marketing success�particularly with customer nurturing.
-The more you segment, the more relevant your nurt

Customer Engagement

Creating deep connections with customers that drive purchase decisions, interaction, and participation over time


The prerequisite for sellers and buyers to establish relational exchange with emotional bonds, connections may be established through traditional offline methods or new digital online methods
-Customer engagement cycle


The customer can interact with seller personnel and other customers once connected, real time interactions are now available among people worldwide because of technology
-Customer engagement cycle


Customers will stay connected and continue to interact with sellers as long as the interactions are satisfying
-Customer Engagement cycle


Can result from either overall satisfaction over time or highly positive emotions, satisfaction over time emerges as a result of repurchases and implies a long-term relationship between seller and customer
-Customer engagement cycle


Affective commitment (more emotional and results from the trust reciprocity in a relationship) and calculative commitment (more rational and results from a lack of choice or switching costs)
-Customer engagement cycle


Delighted customers spreading the word about their positive experiences, sellers and customers can play an advocacy role
-Customer engagement cycle


Occurs when customers have strong emotional bonds in relational exchanges with sellers, includes customers in the creation of value
-Customer engagement cycle

Four types of relationships

1. Transactional Customers
2. Delighted Customers
3. Loyal Customers
4. Fans

Transactional Customer

Relational exchange and emotional bonds are low, minimal personal relationships and no anticipation or obligation of future exchanges, price sensitive and prone to deal
-Type of relationship

Delighted Customer

Relational exchange is low but emotional bonds are high, expectations have been exceeded but transactions are rare, does not translate into long-term relationships
-Type of relationship

Loyal Customer

Relational exchange is high but emotional bonds are low, loyal for purely rational reasons, relationships endure over time because of barriers to exit, unlikely to recommend a seller on their own
-Type of relationship


Relational exchange and emotional bonds are high, enduring relationships, trust sellers and become passionate advocates for them, connect with other fans and improve overall satisfaction
-Type of relationship

Marketing Communications Mix

-(Top Row): Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion
-(Middle Row): Public Relations/Publicity, Direct Marketing.
-(Bottom Row): Electronic and Internet Marketing, Branding

1. Consumer
2. Trade (B2B)

Sales promotions are often separated into two distinct types:

BDI Formula

(% of Brand's Total U.S. Sales in "Market X"/ % of the Total U.S. Population in "Market X") x 100

CDI Formula

(% of a Category's Total U.S. Sales in "Market X"/ % of the Total U.S. Population in "Market X") x 100


The study of consumer behavior patterns

Bottom-Up Budgeting

With this method of budgeting, each department supplies data for the budget; these budgets are then scrutinized and passed on to the next level, until the budget finally goes to the individual who is primarily responsible for the budgeting process


A tool used by marketers to identify their product offerings and to differentiate their product offerings from those of the competition

Brand Community

A group of consumers with some type of product or brand attachment.

Brand Development Index (BDI)

An index that shows marketers how their brands are performing versus the competition in defined markets

Brand Equity

The value of a company's brand typically based upon consumers' perceptions about the brand's level of quality


The process of placing identifiable symbols on a company's products and services; branding is used for differentiation and communication

Category Development Index (CDI)

An index that allows marketers to see how well their products and services are performing in a particular product category

Customer Equity

The value of the resources customers are investing into a firm or organization


Statistics on a specific population; these data are especially useful when developing an integrated marketing communication plan

Direct Marketing

An integrated marketing communications tactic that utilizes a direct channel of distribution to communicate with a customer. typically asking the customer to take some type of immediate action

Electronic Marketing

The use of digital technologies to sell goods and services; Internet marketing makes use of the internet to market goods and services

Internet Marketing

Integrated marketing communication tactic that uses the Internet to communicate with various publics


The total marketing and financial value of a firm's marketing and IMC efforts


The number of times an advertisement is shown


The use of geographical data to generate information about a market or consumer group


A segmentation variable that combines geography and descriptive population statistics (demographics) to better understand the customer market

Name Equity

The financial value of a company or organization's name

Personal Selling

Face-to-face communications with customers with the hope of closing a sale


Data that report on consumer lifestyles

Public Relations (PR)

An integrated marketing communication tactic that focuses on developing relationships with the various publics of an organization or business


An integrated marketing communication tactic that attempts to manage the uncontrollable environments associated with public relations


The number of people in a targeted market exposed to an advertisement or an advertising or IMC campaign

Sales Promotion

An integrated marketing communication execution that focuses on creating immediate sales or awareness of products, services, activities, and ideas; typically sales promotions are undertaken at the point-of-sale

Top-Down Budgeting

An approach to budgeting where upper management personnel prepare a budget and pass it down to their various departments; the departments are instructed to stay within budget when making buying decisions

Web Communities

Communities that exist on the Internet

Environmental Scanning

Which of the following is NOT a variable that makes up the marketing communications mix?

SWOT Analysis

Which type of analysis does the marcom planner use to identify key factors, both external and internal, that are relevant to the IMC objectives?

Psychographics, Demographics, Behaviorists, and Geographics

What are the four "ics" that a market uses to describe the target market?

Hierarchy of Effects Model

The goal of moving a consumer from knowing about a product, to preferring that product, to finally purchasing the product is illustrated by the:

Advertising Jargon

Which of the following is NOT essential to include during the IMC strategy development process?

Outside organizations can provide a more objective evaluation than the plan's creators can

What is one benefit of using an outside research organization to evaluate the IMC plan?

Reach; Frequency

___________ refers to the number of individuals or households who are exposed to a marketing message at least once; ______ is the number of times, on average, a person is exposed to the message:

Performing an analysis of the marketing plan

What is the first step to creating the integrated marketing communication, or marcom plan?


The analysis of data about what consumers do with their time and their interests, opinions, values, and lifestyles is called:

Each department submits budget data, which is reviewed and passed on to the next level

In a bottom-up approach to budgeting,:

Creative, based on research, and derived from the IMC strategy

IMC tactics or executions must be:

Concept Tests

Which type of IMC evaluation technique often uses focus groups to evaluate both strategy and outcomes?

Types of Research

-Market research
-Economic research
-Scientific research
-Media research
-Social research

Basic Research Methods

-Quantitative Research
-Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

-Data or information in the form of numbers
-Observational Research
-Media research

Qualitative Research

-Used to deepen understanding about something
-Face-to-face interviews
-Focus Groups
-Site visits and observation
-Case studies

Marketing Research

The systematic gathering, recording, and interpretation of information related to all marketing mix variables

Advertising Research

A specialized form of marketing research that focuses on the planning, preparation, and placement of advertising

Audience Profiling

Helps the creatives understand the people to whom their ads will speak

Focus Groups

Brainstorming session with 4 to 8 target customers and a monitor

Protective Techniques

Most common of these are association tests and sentence of picture completion

Concept Tests

Seek feedback designed to screen the quality of a new idea using consumers as the judge

Idea Generation

Designed to assist in developing new ways of presenting a good or service

Environmental Analysis

Generates information on the uncontrollable variables in the business environment and tries to assess the potential influence of social/cultural trends, economics, how politics/economics may influence the consumer and environment into which ads will be us

Dimensions for message assessment

-Impact Knowledge
-Shape attitudes
-Legitimize the brand

Impact Knowledge

May use taglines, jingles, or general focus on recognition of brand
-Dimension for message assessment

Shape Attitudes

Attach feeling and emotion to the brand
-Dimension for message assessment

Legitimize the Brand

Determine to what extent the message resonates/rings true with the target audience
-Dimension for message assessment

Tools used for pretest message

-Communication tests
-Theater Tests
-Attitude Change
-Psychological Measures

Communication Tests

See if the message is actually communicating what is desired
-Tool used for pretest message

Theater Tests

Done in small theaters where audiences have an electronic device through which they can express how much they like or dislike the ad shown
-Tool used for pretest message

Attitude Change

Before and after ad exposure
-Tool used for pretest message

Psychological Measures

Reaction to message based on their physical response
-Tool used for pretest message

Message Test Program Forms

1. Split-cable Transmission
2. Split-run Distribution
3. Split-list Experiments

Split-Cable Transmission

-Allows testing of 2 different versions of ads through direct transmission to 2 separate samples of similar household
-Message test program form

Split-run Distribution

Same technique but only print where 2 different versions of the ad are placed in every other copy of a magazine
-Message test program form

Split-list Experiments

-Test the effectiveness of various aspects of direct mail advertising
-Posttest Message Tracking
--Assesses the performance of an ad during and after the launch of a campaign.
--Most common method of research
--Recognition testing
-Message test program fo

Single-source Tracking

UPCs (universal product codes) information about brand purchases and grocery store scanner data are combined with devices attached to the households' televisions (peoplemonitors) that monitor viewing behavior, and measure the impact of advertising/promoti

Consumers Buying Journey

1. Awareness
2. Consideration
3. Preference
4. Decision/Purchase


-"What brands solve my problem?"
-Key Messages: make consumers aware your product exists
-What will your audience respond to:
--in store product experience
--expert recommendations
--product reviews
-Consumers buying journey step


-"Which brand best satisfies my purchase criteria?"
-Key Messages: explain how your product does X
-What will your audience respond to:
--blog posts
--demonstration videos
--product reviews
-Consumers buying journey step


-"I think this one is the best choice"
-Key Messages: reinforce why your product is a good choice
-What will your audience respond to:
--blog posts
--shared content
--expert and user reviews
-Consumers buying journey step


-"I'll try this/I'll buy it"
-Key messages: make it easy for consumers to buy/try your product
-What will your audience respond to:
--online stores
-Consumers buying journey step


1. Is their content relevant to your brand?
2. Do they post frequently?
3. Do they have audience data?
4. Is their content high-quality?
5. Do they have high audience engagement?
6. Are they professional?
7. Do they have the ability and desire to build a

Personas Guide

-A persona is a fictional person who would buy our products or services. A persona describes the target's personality traits, responsibilities, priorities, etc.
-Creating a persona helps us to create more relatable and compelling content.
-"Advertise to s

Value Proposition

The sum total of the offerings and experiences delivered to customers during their interactions with an organization, product, or brand.

Elements of a Value Proposition

1. Target Market
2. Value
3. Offering
4. Prioritizing Benefits
5. Differentiation
6. Proof

Target Market

-Identify the people buying your product/service
-Use relevant demographics, buying behaviors, psychographics, attitudes or needs
-Element of a value proposition


-WIIFM (What's In It For Me)
-Includes tangible and intangible attributes/benefits
-Element of a value proposition


-Start with the consumer's perceived value, then craft your product line/service offerings
-Constantly innovate your offering to ensure you're relevant and differentiated over time
-Element of a value proposition

Prioritizing Benefits

Prioritizing benefits that will allow you to develop a compelling value proposition.
Use this to refine how consumers perceive your value
-Element of a value proposition


-What is your value against competitors?
-Why should customers choose you?
-Think outside the box to problem solve this
-Element of a value proposition


-Value propositions work but you need to measure them for effectiveness
-Use TCO (total cost of measurement) or ROI (return on investment) models to show clients how this benefits them
-Element of a value proposition

Two basic Tasks of Marketing Communications

1. Message Creation
2. Message Dissemination

Message Dissemination

-Media planning supports dissemination. -Helps you determine which media to use (i.e. television, newspaper, banner ads) Tells you when and where to use media.
-Refers to the process of selecting media time and space to accomplish objectives.
-Ex: super b

Brand Contact

-Any planned and unplanned form of exposure to and interaction with a product or service.
-Planned - Television commercials, product sampling, radio ads.
-Unplanned - Word of mouth

Product Placement

-Blends advertisement with content itself in contrast with ad insertion which are made separately from the content and placed into it. E.G.
-Home Care -Product ad on HGTV. (more popular)

Planned Messages

Press releases, ads, sales promotion (advertisers initiate)

Unplanned Messages

Word of mouth online and offline initiated by people and organizations rather than advertisers. (advertisers have little to no control).

Media Planning (4 Step Process)

1. Setting media objectives in light of marketing and advertising objectives.
2. Developing a media strategy for implementing media objectives
3. Designing media tactics for realizing media strategy
4. Proposing procedures for evaluating the effectiveness

Target Audience

The people whom the media plan attempts to influence through various forms of brand contact


-A generic term for consumers' personality traits , beliefs, and attitudes about social issues, personal interests, and shopping orientation.
> VALS (Values and Lifestyles) used to place adult consumers in one of eight segments. (Innovators, Thinkers, Ach

Values and Lifestyles (VALS)

Used to place adult consumers in one of eight segments
-(Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, Experiencers, Believers, Strivers, Makers, and Survivors)

Generational Cohorts

e.g. baby boomers (70 million born 1945-1964), generation x (17 million born 1965 -1978), generation y (about 60 million born 1979-1994).

Product and Brand usage

Consumption behavior, product usage includes both brand usage (special k, dove) and category usage (facial tissue, chewing gum)

Four levels of product use

1. Heavy users
2. Medium users
3. Light users
4. Non-users

Categories of Brand Use

-Brand loyals (always same brand)
-Primary Users (use brand most of the time but occasionally use others)
-Secondary Users (Primarily use another brand but occasionally switch)
-Brand Switchers (No brand preference, choose based on situational factors)

Foundation Model

1. Vehicle Distribution
2. Vehicle Exposure
3. Advertising Exposure

Vehicle Distribution

Refers to the coverage of a media vehicle such as the number of copies that magazine or newspaper issue has or the number of households that can tune in

Vehicle Exposure

Refers to the number of individuals exposed to the media vehicle, such as the number of people who read a magazine or watched a television program

Advertising Exposure

Refers to the number of individuals exposed an ad or a commercial itself.

Six Easy Phases of a Campaign

1. Definition
2. Research
3. Planning
4. Execution
5. Measurement & Optimization
6. Insight & Reporting

Audience Growth Rate

-Measures change in a brand or company's following on social media networks.
-Determines average rate of increase or decrease in your fans or followers over time.