Science chapter 21 sec 3

What is a pollutant?

A material that causes pollution

What natural events can cause some kinds of pollution?

For example, when a volcano erupts, it may produce ash and dust that rise into the atmosphere. This can cause air pollution, which can harm living things. Animal wastes, including human waste, can also cause pollution if they are produced faster than they

Why is most pollution caused by humans?

For example, we make many different products and materials used in chemical reactions. These reactions generally produce many different products. Although many of the products are useful, some can become pollutants if they are not recycled were used prope

What are some examples of different air pollutants

Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particular matter

What do these air pollutants have in common?

Most of these pollutants form when fossil fuel burn

Carbon monoxide, CO

Description- odorless, colorless gas
Source- incomplete burning of fossil fuels

Nitrogen oxides, NOx

Description- gas formed from combustion of nitrogen
Source- Burning of fossil feels

Sulfur dioxide, SO2

Description- gas produced by chemical interactions between sulfur and oxygen
Source- Burning of fossil fuels

Volatile organic compounds, VOCs

Description- organic chemicals that are evaporate to produce toxic fumes
Source- cars, gasoline stations, paints, glues, burning fuels

Particular matter, PM

Description- tiny particles of a liquid or solid matter
Source- construction, fires, burning fuels

How do you fossil fuels, which contain mainly carbon and hydrogen, combin with oxygen during combustion to produce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

The main products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water. However, fossil fuel's also contain small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen.

What happens when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mixed with other gases and with water to produce acids

The acids lower the pH of precipitation, such as rain, sleet, and snow, producing acid precipitation. Normal Rainwater is slightly acidic its pH is about 5.6. Acid rain may have a pH of 4.0 to 5.0.

How can acid precipitation harm the environment?

When acid precipitation falls into water bodies, such as streams and rivers, the water bodies can become acidic. Most organisms that live in water are adapted to specific pH levels. Therefore, if a water body becomes more acidic, organisms that live in it

How is carbon dioxide produced?

It is produced naturally but is also produced when people burn fossil fuels

Carbon dioxide is one of the ____ that helps keep earths temperature stable

Greenhouse gases

How do greenhouse gases work to affect the temperature on earth surface

1. radiation from the sun passes through earths atmoshpere and warms the surface
2. When earths surface absorbs sunlight, it warms up. The heat moves back into the atmosphere
3. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb some of the heat from earth. They r

What is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

Human burning of fossil fuels

The higher levels of carbon dioxide me be causing The greenhouse of fact to increase causing what sensation to happen

Global warming

When nitrogen oxides in car exhaust react with sunlight, a mixture of different chemicals can form called what

Photochemical smog

What is photochemical smog?

Photochemical smog, which is usually just called smog, is a brownish haze. It can cause breathing problems and headaches.

What is one of the harmful chemicals in smog


How is ozone near the ground a pollutant

Because it can be toxic or harmful to many living things

How have cities made efforts to reduce smog

They have made efforts to get people to use more public transportation

What is the result of more people using more public transportation

As a result, smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere, and less smog forms

Pollutants in water can enter the soil or the air and cause what

Can cause other kinds of pollution

What are examples of water polutants that are easy to remove

For example people can remove garbage, such as cans and plastic, from the water

What are examples of water pollutants that are much harder to remove

. For example, chemicals to enter streams and rivers can be very difficult to separate from the water

What is one source of pollution in water

Chemical fertilizers, people use these to help plants grow better. However, rainwater can carry these chemicals into streams, rivers, Lakes, and oceans

Many fertilizers contain compounds called what? What do these compounds do?

Nitrates, these chemicals can cause plants and algae in water to grow out of control. This process is called eutrophication

What are pesticides?

Chemicals that people use to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops

How can pesticides sprayed on land get into bodies of water

As with fertilizers, rainwater can wash pesticides into other water bodies.

How can these pesticides, that get into bodies of water, harm organisms that live in water

Tiny organisms in the water can absorb the pesticides. Larger animals such as fish, eat the tiny organisms. The pesticides can build up in the bodies of the larger animals and make them sick.

What are examples of land pollution that are easy to clean up

For example, we can remove garbage and waste from the sides of the roads.

What are examples of land pollution that are harder to clean up

Two cases, however land is polluted by chemicals, such as gasoline oil. It can be difficult to remove these chemicals from the soil.

What is the best solution to pollution

To reduce the amount of natural resources you use

What are some examples of reducing the amount of natural resources you use

-turn off electronic devices when you're not using them
- in the winter, set the thermostat to a lower temperature. In the summer, set the air conditioner to a higher temperature
-run the dishwasher and washer Machines only when they're full. If you wash

What are the best ways to prevent pollution

Reducing, reusing, and recycling materials

What are materials that can be recycled

Plastic, paper, cardboard, and metals