FINALS - biology

The main parts of this organ system are: bones cartilage, tendons, tissue, and ligaments


These types of tissue in the Musculoskeletal system connect bone to bone and muscle to bone

Ligament and Tendons

Skull, clavicle, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, are all types of these


Within the skeletal system this allows movement


Thus organ system helps maintain homeostasis by providing movement in times of danger


What components does the cardiovascular system have?

Heart, veins, arteries, and blood

This system helps maintain homeostasis by controlling blood flow moving nutrients hormones O2/CO2 and glucose and getting to every cell in the body


Takes O2 and distributes to body and eliminates CO2 from the body along with distributing other nutrients and wast


Atria and Ventricles are part of the what?


These types of blood vessels carry blood away from the heart with Oxygen


The cardiovascular/circulatory system circulates hormones, glucose, O2, CO2, and nutrients throughout the body to do what?

Maintain homeostasis

The musculoskeletal system is most directly affected by what system?


This is why the heart pumps blood to and from the lung to the body

For CO2 out and O2 in blood

Thyroid, thymus, adrenal, pituitary, ovaries, hypothalamus, are all organs of this system


The endocrine systems helps regulate many different what?

Cellular function, growth, development and reproduction

Uses hormones to control metabolism, heart rate, blood sugar and growth


These two glands in the brain control many of the other glands of the endocrine system and thus many different functions of the body

Hypothalamus and Pituitary

Releases adrenaline which regulates heart and metabolism


The adrenal gland secrets this which helps many parts of the body respond to stress


Produces insulin and glucagon


Endocrine maintains homeostasis by

Releasing hormones and proteins that keep all the organ systems functioning growing and developing

This gland releases melatonin and regulates our internal clock


The nervous system can all be split into two main divisions

Central and peripheral

Made of many different types of neurons


Neurons communicate with each other through neurotransmitters in this in this area


These are parts of the central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

Motor Nerves and sensory nerves

Peripheral nerves

Part of this structure controls every conscious action we do and some unconscious


Touch, taste, vision, hearing, pain and temputure

Sensory organs

Sensory nerves go into brain and motor nerves go out to muscles and are components of this system

Peripheral Nervous System

BPA affects this system more than other organ systems


Muscles use the largest share of the bodies energy to make what?


Endotherms control their body temperature

Form within themeselves

A string of amnio acids can also be called what?


DNA --> RNA --> Protein

Central Dogma of molecular biology

Gene mutations include all of the following except


Mutation can be caused by chemical agents known as


Mutations can create proteins that are

more effective, less effective, and no change

RNA stands for

ribonucleic acid

Changes in the DNA sequence of the genome


After the start codon, mRNA is read how many bases at a time?


One of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell


A gene that scientists use to test and see if the desired gene got into the organisms DNA


An enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific base sequence

Restriction enzym

Organisms that contain genes from another organism are what?


Treatinga disease by changing a gene is called what?

Gene Therapy

The application of a technological process, invention or method to the DNA of a living thing is called what?


The scientific study of evidence from a crime scene


Small circular DNA molecule in a bacterial cell is a


This is produced at the ends of a DNA fragment after it has been cut by a restriction enzyme

Sticky ends

These organisms may also be used to transfer rDNA in gene therapy


One "Pro" pf GMO's is to what?

Produce hormones necessary for therapy

Leaner cows, more milk production and greater crop production are reasons that transgenic animals are used in what industry?


At the beginning of every mRNA message the first codon AUG is called what?

Start codon

A three base pair sequence in the mRNA message is called a what?


Three basses on a tRNA molecule are called the what?


This types of gene mutations often causes little to no effect


These types of gene mutations cause frameshift mutations

Deletions and insertions

The reading of the mRNA is shifted causing different tRNA and thus different amino acids to be added to the polypeptide chain

Framshift mutations

Polyploidy, useful traits, more efficent proteins are what?


Diescribe RNA

Double Stranded

In mRNA each codon specifies a particular what?

Amino acid

An organism that contains genes from another organism are what?


Bacteria often contain small circular molecules of DNA known as what?


The number of Chromosomes in each gamete


The number of chromosomes in the first cell and all other cells of the body except gametes


A 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base together are this

A nucleotide

In what way do bases pair correctly in DNA

A-T or C-G

What type of Bonds hold the base pairs together?

Hydrogen bonds

Who discovered that the amount of T is the same as A and C is the same as G


Who discovered the basic structure of DNA by X-Ray but not the specific molecules?

Rosalinda Franklin

DNA Replication is a "semi-conservative" because it is this

Half original and half new

The enzyme that makes DNA

DNA polymerse

Where DNA is replicated

Replication Fork

This type of cell has it's DNA in a ring


There are 22 numbered pairs and the last pair is the Sex chromosomes

Sex Chromosomes (XX or XY)

Each chromosome has this many genes

100's of genes

Bonds that hold the base pairs together

Hydrogen Bonds

The area in the chromosome that appears "pinched" is called the


In a genetic abnormality this has been changed and produces an abnormal protein

A gene/DNA in a gene

An affected individual with a recessive disorder (rr) has how many copies of an abnormal gene


If a male has an abnormal gene on their X chormosome that male will be what>

Affected with the disorder

This is the process that causes extra or missing chromosome to occur in gametes and zygotes


A chromosome abnormality that has an extra chromosome on 1 pair and is called what?


A chromosome abnormality where a female has all the 22 numbered pairs and only 1 X is called what?

Turners syndrome

People with Down Syndrome have 3 copies of this chromosome


Forms the sides of the ladder or "Backbone

Deoxyribose and phosphate group

In prokaryotic cells, DNA is replicated starting at what?

1 point

The complete set of genetic information an organism carries in it's DNA


Any change in the DNA bas sequence within a gene may cause this

Abnormal protien-abnormal phenotype

What are gametes?

Sex cells, egg and sperm and haploid number of chromosomes

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine are what?

Nitrogenous bases

A nucleotide does not contain what?

An amnio acid

A picture of the complete set of chromosome pairs arranged in order of decreasing size is a what?


Genetic abnormalities can be inherited in what?

Dominant and recessive patterns

In DNA the fit between thymine and adenine and the fit between cytosine and guanine is what?

Base pairing

An enzyme that joins individual nucelotides to produce a new strand of DNA

DNA polymerase

The center "pinched" area of a chromosme


The process that copies a DNA molecule

DNA replication

The X chromosome or the Y chromosome


A gene on the X chromosome or the Y chromosome

Sex-linked gene

A chart that shows family relationships and inheritance of traits


Any chromosome that isn't a sex chromosome is an


The full set of genetic information in an organism's DNA


The difference between Mitosis and Mieosis is what?

Mitosis has 1 cell division and Meiosis has 2, Meiosis ends with 4 cells with 23 chromosomes each, and Mitosis ends with 46 chromosomes in each of 2 cells

Name the steps of meiosis in order,

Prophase 1, Crossing over, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telephase 1, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2

Organisms that make their own energy


Organisms that get their energy from other organisms


Organisms that eat other organisms


Organisms that eat plants


All energy for primary producers and all consumers, thus all life on earth comes from where?


This is the sequence of organisms based on the order of which organisms eat what?

Food Chain

This much energy is lost at each trophic level to heat, food gathering and bodily functions


Algea, phytoplankton and moss are what?


The greatest biomass in a trophic pyramid is located where?

At the bottom

When this type of symbiosis occurs bother species benefits from their relationship


Air, Nitrogen, Carbon, Phosphorus, Sunlight and weather are what factors in the environment?


This form of symbiosis occurs when one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped


When two species try to get the most food or the best habitat and one species wins and one loses

Competitive exclusion

Two or more organisms living and thriving in the same area with different niches is called?

Resource sharing

These convert dead material to detrious and break down dead material to its elements and minerals for primary producers to use


Growth of a habitat that forms when no other living organism are present

Primary succession

Symbiotic relationship between two species when one species is benefited and one is not harmed


Succession of a healthy ecosystem forms after a natural disturbance when some remnants of a community are still present

Secondary succession

A species that is so important to the other species in the ecosystem that if it dies, the ecosystem changes

Keystone predetors

Succession that starts with a barren rock is


A species that grow on a barren rock and starts a primary succession

Pioneer species

Succession from a few small species of autotrophs/primary producers to a climax community

Secondary succession

The amount of minerals and elements in the soil, temperature, rain or snowfall and the terrain are all what kind of factors?

Abiotic factors

This is the name of a community which has reached its fullest potential and has many species .

Climax community

Birth, immigration, death and emigration are all factors that affect what?

Population size

The habitat and food sources of an organism


Factors that limit the growth of populations that are related to how many individuals are present

Density dependent

The total of all genetically based variation of all organisms in the biosphere


The basis for many medicines comes from these on earth


Area where large number of species are in immediate risk of extintion

Ecological Hot Spot

Fires, hurricanes, and other natural disturbances can result in


The series of steps in which a large fish eats small fish that has eaten algae is a what?

Food chain

Releases adrenaline which regulates heart and metabolism