Bio final!!!

what were the first animals to invade land?


natural selection

the process where organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than less well adapted organisms in the same environment

vestigial structures

structures that are reduced in size because they no longer serve an important function

ancestral character

characters that evolved in a common ancestor of both groups

what are the six kingdoms of life?

eubacteria, archaebacteria, protista, animalia, plantae, and fungi

what are the eight different levels of classification?

domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species


an agent that is harmful to living organisms

what are structures that are found in a typical eukaryotic cell but not in a bacteria cell?

membrane-bound organelles, linear chromosomes, and nuclei


the chemicals that kill of bacteria by interfering with cellular processes

gametophyte generation

the haploid, gamete-producing phase in the life cycle of some protists


the individual filaments that make up the body of a fungus

what is the role that fungi play in the environment?


radial symmetry

the type of symmetry where it always produces like halves


the concentration of sensory organs at the anterior end of an organism


the outer tissue layer of cnidarians


the term used to describe an organism with a body cavity but not in the correct spot

what is the function of the muscular foot in mollusks?

movement, capturing prey, and burrowing

what are the three body segments of arthropods?

head, thorax, and abdomen

what is the phylum of vertebrates that posses hair?



the structure that allows for gas exchange in fish


the inability of an animal to regulate its own body temperature

what is the purpose of the lateral line in fish?

to perceive position and rate of movement

what are the two phylums of vertebrates that are characterized as having Endothermic metabolisms?

aves and mammalia

what are the four phylums of vertebrates that are characterized as having a double loop circulatory system?

amphibia, reptilia, aves, and mammalia


a long tube that connects the mouth to the lungs


bands of connective tissue that holds joints together


the clusters of air sacs in the lung


a protein filament that attached to the binding sites causing muscle contraction

what is the process that results in inhalation?

the diaphragm and rib muscles contract, expanding the thoracic cavity and decreasing the press. with a lower pressure inside than outside, air flows into the lungs.

what is the process of how nerve cells communicate to each other?

neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to the receptor proteins of the postsynaptic neuron. the binding of these neurotransmitters stimulates a new action potential in the postsynaptic nerve cell.


the structure that produces spores in nonvascular plants

what is the purpose of the vascular system?

to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant

what is the difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?

gymnosperms bear seeds in cones and angiosperms bear seeds in flowers

what causes stomata to open or close?

the amount of water pressure in the guard cells

what is the process of fertilization in angiosperms?

pollen contains two sperm and ovary contains three eggs. one sperm fertilizes one egg creating the zygote while the other sperm joins the other eggs creating the endosperm.

what is the process that results in the movement of water throughout a plant?

water exits the leaves through transpiration creating a water pressure difference between the leaves and the roots. water is drawn in to the roots and up to the leaves to equalize the pressure difference.