Chapter 4

labor force participation rate

the percentage of the population working or seeking work


effort directed toward accomplishing results


grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitutes the total work assignment for an employee

workflow analysis

study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization

job design

organizing tasks, duties, responsibilities, and other elements into a productive unit of work

job redesigning

changing existing jobs in different ways it to improve them

contingent worker

someone who is not a full-time employee but is a temporary or part-time worker for a specific period of time and type of work

person-job fit

matching the characteristics of people with the characteristics of jobs

job enlargement

broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks that are performed

job enrichment

increasing the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and/or evaluating the job

job rotation

process of shifting a person from job to job

skill variety

extent to which the work requires several activities for successful completion

task identity

extent to which the job includes a recognizable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and results in a known consequences

task significance

impact the job has on other people and the organization as a whole


extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling


the amount of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed

special-purpose team

organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance the overall quality of products and services

self-directed team

organizational team composed of individuals who are assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished

virtual team

organizational team that includes individuals who are separated geographically but who are linked by communications technology


employees complete work through electronic interactions, telecommunications, and internet technology

compressed workweek

a workweek in which a full week's work is accomplished in fewer than five days of eight working hours each

job sharing

scheduling arrangement in which two employees perform the work of one full-time job

work-life balance

employer-sponsored programs designed to help employees balance work and personal life

job analysis

systematic way of gathering and analyzing information about the content, context, and the content, context, and human requirements of jobs


distinct, identifiable work activity comprised of motions that employees perform


larger work segment comprised of several tasks that are performed by individuals


obligations that individuals have to perform certain tasks and duties within a job


individual capabilities that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or teams

marginal job functions

duties that are part of a job but are incidental or ancillary to the purpose and nature of the job

job description

identifies a job's tasks, duties, and responsibilities

job specifications

the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily

performance standards

indicators of what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key area of the job description