Chapter 1: Electricity Section 1: Electric Charge

charge

electric charge of a proton, electron, or an object having an unequal number of protons and electrons

protons

positive charge (+)

electrons

negative charge (-)

positive

when the protons are greater than the electrons, you get a __________ object

negative

when the electrons are greater that the protons, you get a ____________ object

zero

when the protons equal the amount of electrons, you get _________ charge on an object

electrical attraction

when 2 neutral objects are rubbed together, electrons may leave one object and move on to another

negative

when an object gains an electron, the charge is __________

positive

when an object loses an electron, the charge is ___________

repel

like charges _______

attract

opposite charges ________

coulomb (C)

SI unit for charge

static electricity

an accumulation of excess electric charge on an object

balloon rubbing on hair

example of static electricity

the movement of electrons

electric currents result from

law of conservation of charge

states that charge cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transferred from one object to another

electric field

surrounds every electric charge and exerts the force that causes other electric charges to be attracted or repelled

conductor

a material through which electrons can move easily

insulator

a material in which electrons cannot move easily

example of a conductor

metal

examples of insulators

wood, ceramics, rubber, plastics

by induction and contact

2 ways to transfer a charge

charging by induction

the rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object

example of static discharge

lightning

static discharge

transfer of charge between 2 objects because of a build up of static electricity

how thunder is produced

As the electric charge moves through the air, they collide with atoms causing the atoms/molecules to emit light. Electrical energy in lightning rips electrons off of atoms in the atmosphere which produces great amounts of heat; heat causes air to expand rapidly, producing the sound waves that you hear as thunder

electroscope

a device that can detect electric charge

not charged

when ________, leaves hang straight down

is charged

when device ________, electric forces push the leaves apart (repelling of like charges)