UH-72 Warfighter Skills

Tactical Flight Mission Planning

Mission
Map
Mode
Routes
Determine - Speed, Time, Distance
Fuel
Risk
Weather
Brief

Hazards to Terrain Flight

Physical - Natural and Man-made
Human
Meteorlogical

Respond to IIMC

Announce
Attitude
Heading
Torque
Trim
Airspeed

Unusual Attitude

Attitude
Heading
Torque
Airspeed
Altitude

Tactical Reports (aviation Spot)

Size
Activity
Location
Time
What you are doing

Aerial Observation definition

A systematic visual coverage of a given area so that all parts of the area are observed

Standards/Key Tasks/Elements of Aerial Observation

Detect
Identify
Locate
Report

Factors that affect aerial observation

Weather
Altitude
Airspeed
Terrain
Cues
Human Factors

Cues to Aerial Observation

Movement
Color
Lights
Obvious sightings
Shapes and shadows
Smoke and dust
Trails
Texture
Heat

Visual search techniques

Motive
Stationary
Side-scan

Motive Scan Sectors

Non-observation
Observation
Acquisition
Recognition

Wind Recognition

Forecast vs Actual winds
Aircraft cues
Ground cues

Fundamentals of reconnaissance

Gain and maintain enemy contact
Orient on the recon objective
Report timely and accurately
Retain freedom to maneuver
Develop the situation
Don't leave recon forces in reserve
Ensure continuous reconnaissance

Four Types of Aerial Reconnaissance

Zone
Area
Route
Aerial Surveillance

Fundamentals of Security

Maintain enemy contact
Orient on the protected force
Provide room maneuver space and reaction time
Provide early and accurate warning
Perform continuous recon

Five Forms of Security Missions

Screen
Guard
Cover
Area
Local

Two Techniques of Aerial Security

Attached and Detached

Two Types of Aerial Security

Route and Convoy

Actions on Contact

Deploy to cover
Report
Maintain enemy contact
Develop the situation
Choose a course of action

Target Handover

Area and target description
Target location
Method of attack
Execution
Post attack actions

Techniques of Movement

Traveling
Traveling Overwatch
Bounding Overwatch

LZ/PZ Recon Tactical Considerations

Mission
Security
Location

LZ/PZ Recon Technical Considerations

Landing formation
Obstacles
Number of aircraft
Ground slope
Loads
Approach and departure direction
Size of LZ/PZ
Security
Vulnerability

LZ/PZ Recon Meteorological Considerations

Visibility
Density Altitude
Ceiling
Prevailing Winds

Holding Area Recon Considerations

Cover and concealment
Obstacles
Key terrain features
Avenues of approach and departure
Security

Route Recon Minimum Information Needed

Weather
Objectives
Units using
Limits
Designation
Time to be used

Ground Routes - Roads

Surface type
Surface condition
Width
Drainage
Grades and curves
Drive-off capability
Concealment

Ground Routes - Bridges/Tunnels/Overpasses

Construction type
Condition
Clearance
Length and width
Location
Bypass condition (easy/difficult/impossible)

Air Route Recon - Information

Hazards to flight
Ease of navigation
Location of enemy
PZ/LZ location

Call for Fire Elements

ID - Observer
WARNO
Location of target
Description of target
Method of engagement
Method of fire and control

Landing Area Recon VMC / Terrain Flight Approach

Size
Suitability
Barriers
Approach
Takeoff
Touchdown
Tactical Situation
Size and Suitability
Long Axis
Obstacles
Winds

Abort Criteria for Slopes

Cyclic Limits
Aircraft Limits
Mast Moment
Personal Limits
Sliding

Day/Night/NVG Equipment Requirements

Attitude indicator (or visible horizon per 95-1)
Airspeed indicator
Altimeter (Radar)
Altimeter (Barometric)
Aircraft lighting
AHRS
Clock
Compass
Comms
Flashlight
Fuel indicator
FAT indicator
Standby instruments
Position lights
Instrument lights
Transpond

Night Use of Lights

Flashlight
Landing light / Search light (IR for goggles)
Anti-collision light
Position lights
Instrument lights

Dark Adaptation

Thousand-ten thousand
Illumination at start
Max 30-45 mins
Exposure - intensity and duration
Recovery - several to 45 mins
2-3 mins to dark adapt after taking off goggles if fully dark adapted already

Night Vision Protection

Red light (preserves 90% dark adaption)
Oxygen at and above 4000ft PA
Sunglasses (ND-15)

Night Vision Protective Measures

Cockpit light adjustment
Exterior light adjustment
Light flash compensation
Close one eye
Alter course
Avoid
Turn away

Light precaution at airfield

Lanes for hover
Airfield lighting
Maintenance personnel
Park aircraft in dark areas
Select departure and approach pads in dimly lit areas

Types of vision

Photopic
Mesopic
Scotopic

NVG characteristics

Definition
Intensity - 2-3 thousand times
Acuity - 20/25 center tubes, 20/70 outer tubes
Limited field of view (80% less w/ goggles)
Volts (30 mins left when flashing red)
Power supply (no mixing lithium)

NVG considerations

Color discrimination
Airspeed/ground speed limits
Lights (performance effects, effects of bright lights, tunnel vision)
Magnification (1x)
Weather
Weapons
Aircraft lighting
Distance estimation / depth perception
Degree contrast
Ambient light
Type and qual

Distance Estimation and Depth Perception - Monocular Cues

Geometric Perspective
Linear perspective
Apparent foreshortening
Vertical position on the field
Retinal Image Size
Known size of objects
Increasing decreasing size of objects
Terrestrial association
Overlapping contours
Aerial Perspective
Fading of color

Visual Illusions

Fixation/fascination
Flicker vertigo
False horizon
Confusion with ground lights w/ stars
Relative motion
Altered planes of reference
Structural illusions
Height (depth) perception
Size-distance illusions
Autokineses
Reversible Perspective
Crater illusion

NVG Operational Defects

Flickering, flashing, intermittent operation
Edge glow
Shading
Emission points

NVG Cosmetic Blemishes

Black spots
Bright spots
Chicken wire
Fixed pattern noise (honeycomb)
Image disparity
Image Distortion
Output brightness variation

Night Vision Techniques

Scanning
Off Center Viewing
Shapes and Silhouettes