Chapter II- Nomenclature and Representation of Organic Chemistry

Aliphatic Compound(s) include,

Alkanes, Alkenes & Alkynes

Saturated Hydrocarbon(s) include,

Alkanes

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon(s) include,

Alkenes, Alkynes and Arenes

Methane's molecular formula is,

CH₄

Ethane's molecular formula is,

C₂H₆

The general formula for alkanes is,

C↓(n)H↓(2n+2)

An empirical formula shows,

the simplest ratio of atoms in a compound.

A molecular formula shows,

the actual ratio of atoms in a molecule of a compound.

A complete structural formula shows,

all of the atoms and all of the bonds in a molecule.

A condensed structural formula does not show,

carbon-hydrogen bonds. (such as CH3CH2CH2CH3)

A perspective formula shows,

the carbon chain of the molecule in the plane of the drawing.

A sawhorse formula is useful for representing,

the stereochemistry on the two neighboring carbon atoms.

A Newman projection formula is useful for representing,

the stereochemistry on the two neighboring carbon atoms. We represent the molecule in such a way that we see only the closer carbon atom and not the back one, which is eclipsed by it.

A line formula shows,

only carbon-carbon bonds and heteroatoms.

Butane's molecular formula is,

C₂H₅

Cyclopropane's molecular formula is,

CH₂

In a homologous series,

each subsequent member has an additional - CH₂- group compared to the preceding member.

Constitutional isomers:

two different structural formulas that satisfy molecular formula.

The prefix "neo-" is,

(for "new"), used to describe an isomer that has two methyl groups on the carbon atom next to the last carbon in a chain.

The prefix "iso-" is,

describing a compound that has a methyl substituent on the carbon atom that is the next to the last carbon in the chain.

n-butane:

0

isobutane:

0

n-pentane:

0

isopentane:

0

neopentane:

0

n-hexane:

0

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