SOL REVIEW: Meteorology

Warm Front

Warm air mass pushing away cold air.

Cold Front

Cold air pushing away warm air.

Occluded Front

Boundary of three air masses.

Stationary front

A front that is not moving.

Caused by warm front

long, steady rain showers

Caused by cold front

thunderstorms

A large volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.

Air mass

A very dry body of air.

Continental air mass (c)

A humid (moist) body of air.

Maritime air mass (m)

An extremely cold body of air.

Arctic air mass (A)

A cold body of air.

Polar air mass (P)

A warm or hot body of air.

Tropical air mass (T)

Wind

The movement of air from high pressure to low pressure.

Sea Breeze

A light wind that blows from the sea toward land. Occurs during the day.

Land Breeze

A light wind that blows from the land toward the sea. Occurs at night.

Weather Vane

Instrument used to determine the direction the wind is blowing from.

Anemometer

Instrument used to measure the speed of the wind.

Coriolis Effect

The tendency for winds moving long distances across Earth's surface to drift sideways from its original course. This is due to Earth's rotation.

High pressure system

Winds blow outward from the center and clockwise.

Low pressure system

Winds blow inward towards the center and counter-clockwise.

Jet stream

Bands of fast moving winds at the top of the Troposphere.

Polar Easterlies

Wind belts that extend from the poles to 60 degrees latitude.

Westerlies

Wind belts that extend from 60 degree latitude to 30 degree latitude.

Trade Winds

Winds that blow from 30 degree latitude to the equator.

troposphere

The layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth. Where all weather occurs.

stratosphere

The layer that contains ozone. Above the toposphere.

mesosphere

The coldest layer. Located above the Stratosphere.

thermosphere

Contains the ionosphere and where the aurora borealis occurs.

exosphere

The outermost layer. This is where satellites and space shuttles orbit the earth.

Radiation

The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.

conduction

The transfer of heat by direct contact.

convection

transfer of heat by the flow of heated fluid. Hot air rises, cold air sinks.

nitrogen

78% of the earth's atmosphere.

oxygen

21% of the earth's atmosphere.

tropopause

The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

stratopause

The boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere.