American History 1 Honors Chapter 12 Study Guide

Reconstruction

the process of the government coming up with ways to fix the broken United States after the Civil War

Freedmen's bureau

was created to help black and white southerners uprooted by war

Ten Percent Plan

part of Lincoln's plan to admit the Southern states back into the Union. If 10% of a state's voters pledged their loyalty to the Union and supported emancipation, they could organize new state governments.

Thaddeus Stevens

said that allowing 10% of the state's population to form a new government violated a key principle of the U.S Constitution (Majority Rules)

Wade

Davis Bill- required the majority of a state's white male citizens to pledge loyalty to the Union before elections could be held

Pocket Veto

when a President ignores a bill for ten days with the exception of Sundays and it "dies

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's Democrat Vice President who becomes the 17th President of the U.S after Lincoln is assassinated. Was viewed as a traitor because of the fact that he sided with the Union and was from N.C. Favored Lincoln's lenient plan for Reconstruction, but di

Overriding a veto

pass ? vote in each chamber of Congress

Impeachment (both parts)

? of the Senate must vote to convict the President

John Wilkes Booth

actor who assassinated Lincoln. Shot him at Ford's Theatre and shouted Virginia state motto "Sic semper tyrannis" (death to tyrants) and jumps from balcony back onto stage. Escapes, but is found by Union troops and is killed.

Ford's Theatre

theatre where Lincoln was assassinated by Booth while watching "My American Cousin

Charles Sumner

anti slavery senator who gave a speech in Congress condemning what was happening in Kansas. Was beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks, who disagreed with his ideas.

Ex Parte Milligan

a case in which Lambden Milligan argued that the military court had no right to try him for being guilty of disloyal activities during the Civil War. The Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution is not suspended during times of emergency, even in wartime

13th Amendment

banned slavery

Black Codes

laws designed to keep freed slaves from actually living like free people. Two examples of these were when African Americans had to sign contracts to work or couldn't rent property in some towns.

Ku Klux Klan

a social group who terrorized African Americans after the Civil War in order to "keep order in the south". Terrorized African Americans and whites who were loyal to the Union.

Radical Republicans

members of the U.S Congress who wanted a more thorough Reconstruction plan for the South. Wanted freed slaves to have opportunity and equality, Civil Rights Act, which gave black people "equal benefit of all laws for the security of person and property as

Civil Rights Act

gave African Americans citizenship in the U.S and "equal benefit of all laws for the security of person and property as enjoyed by white citizens." Was vetoed by President Johnson, then was overturned with ? vote.

14th Amendment

defines a U.S. Citizen as anyone born or naturalized......"Equal protection of the laws

Reconstruction Acts

Divided the south into five military districts under control of the U.S. Army. To be readmitted into the Union: 1. Required states to ratify the 14th Amendment 2. Write new state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the right to vote 3. Form new state gove

Office of Tenure Act

required Senate permission to remove any official whose appointment required Senate approval

Edwin Stanton

Lincoln's Secretary of War and supported the Republicans and tougher Reconstruction policies for the South

15th Amendment

suffrage cannot be denied because of race

Scalawag

Southerners who sided with Union policies during Reconstruction

Carpetbaggers

Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction. Carried their possessions in carpetbags.

James Longstreet

a Confederate general who was called a scalawag because he supported Reconstruction in the South and joined Republican Party.

Hiram Revels

from N.C. Attended seminary school/served as army chaplain in Union during Civil War. Moved to Mississippi to establish churches and schools. First African American to be in Senate. Went back to Mississippi after a year in office to continue ministry work

Southern Homestead Act

1866. Set aside 45 million acres of government owned land in South to provide free farms for African Americans.

Sharecropping

when laborers receive a share of land, seed, tools, mules, and a cabin rather than getting paid money.

Tenant Farming

when tenants rented land to farm from landowners

Enforcement Acts in 1870 and 1871

set heavy penalties for anyone attempting to prevent qualified citizens and banned use of disguise (KKK) to deprive anyone from rights

Slaughterhouse Cases

ruled that most most Civil Rights remained under state control rather than 14th Amendment

United States vs Cruikshank

ruled that 14th Amendment did not empower federal government to punish white people who suppressed African Americans

United States vs Reece

15th Amendment did not protect voting rights if they were denied for other reason than race

Rutherford B. Hayes

Republican who won Election of 1876 after winning 20 electoral votes and is 19th President of U.S.

Redeemers

Democrats who started regaining control of the South. Called themselves Redeemers because they redeemed or won back the South from Republicans.

Compromise of 1877

written to get Democrats to go along with Election of 1876. Republicans agree to withdraw remaining federal troops from South. End of Reconstruction.

New South

what Southerners called economic and industrial change in South after Reconstruction

Solid South

Democrat stronghold on South until 1970s.

Clara Barton

female nurse during Civil War who founded the American Red Cross

Robert E. Lee

Brilliant general of the Confederacy. Virginian. Has less troops, but utilizes them. Surrenders to the Union after General Sherman's "March to the Sea" at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.

Ulysses S. Grant

brilliant Union general. Fought at Battle of Shiloh. Captured Forts Henry and Donelson. Wins Siege of Vicksburg. Is surrendered to by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.

Emancipation Proclamation

when Lincoln ordered that all slaves in rebelling areas were free, but it legally didn't do much since Confederacy considered itself another country. It did, however, encourage freedmen to join Union army/navy and serve in segregated units that mostly coo

Copperheads

Democrats in the United States Congress that opposed war

Stonewall Jackson

Confederate General who earned his nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run. Led Confederacy and won. Was accidentally shot and killed by one of his soldiers at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Died 5 days after he was shot.

Fort Sumter

Fort occupied by the Union that was attacked by the Confederacy on April 12th, 1861, which started the Civil War

Border States

slaveholding states that stayed in the Union and formed a border between the Union and Confederate states. Includes Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri.

Anaconda Plan

Union plan to block all southern ports to prevent from importing supplies/exporting cotton. Union gunboats would move down Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy into halves.

Cotton Diplomacy

the usage of cotton by the Confederacy to use as a tool of foreign policy

First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Junction)

Where Thomas Jackson got his nickname of "Stonewall Jackson". 2. The Confederacy won this battle

Ironclads

Union gunboats that were armored with iron plates that kept them from being penetrated from Confederacy's artillery.

Battle of Shiloh

1. Battle took place at Shiloh Church in Tennessee. 2. Was a two day battle of fighting that caused the Union to realize that Southern rebellion wouldn't collapse on its own, and it opened up a way for North to gain control of Mississippi River to split S

Battle of Antietam

1. Was the single bloodiest day of fighting in history of American wars. 2. General McClellan would not use his reserve troops in this battle, which causes Lincoln to relieve him of duty as commander of the Union forces

Battle of Fredericksburg

1. Battle took place in Fredericksburg, Virginia, where Robert E. Lee and Confederate troops were positioned to stop Union. 2. General Ambrose Burnside of the Union and 110,000 soldiers marched towards Richmond, VA (Confederate capital)

House Divided" speech

one of Lincoln's most famous speeches, he gave it at the Republican convention when they nominated him to be the Republican presidential candidate. Lincoln uses a section of the Bible to compare what is going on in the country. Matthew 12:25. And knowing

Habeas Corpus

the right of a person to be brought to court

Blockade Runners

Union ships that were placed around Southern ports. They were painted grey and were low to the water to make them harder to see. They were incredibly fast and sleek and were used to get supplies in and out of the Southern ports.

Monitor vs Merrimack

when the Confederates captured the U.S.S Merrimack and turn into ironclad names the Virgina. Union sends Monitor to destroy Merrimack (Virginia). Fight in the world's first navy battle of ironclads; neither ship seriously damages the other.

Trent affair

when the Confederate government sent John Slidell (Slidell's Trip) and James Mason to Europe to try to get France/Great Britain to recognize them as a nation; they board the Trent and reach Cuba, but are stopped by American warship San Jacinto and are cap

Battle of Chancellorsville

1. Union General Joseph Hooker march on General Lee of Confederacy. Union has 70,000 troops, Confederacy has 40,000. 2. Victory in part of the Confederacy causes General Lee to decide to invade the North again

Battle of Gettysburg

1. This battle lasted for three days and was the largest battle ever fought in America. 2. Was started by two Confederate soldiers who were looking for shoes, and they found Union soldiers and got into a fight.

Pickett's charge

when Confederate General George Pickett led troops across an open field a mile away from the Battle of Gettysburg, and less than half of the 15,000 soldiers that marched returned.

Siege of Vicksburg

1. General Grant of the Union ordered a siege of Vicksburg to starve them out. 2. Vicksburg surrendered on the 48th day of the siege, July 4th, which splits the Confederacy into two pieces.

Sherman's "March to the Sea

when General Sherman destroyed everything in Georgia and South Carolina on his way to the Atlantic Ocean.

Appomattox Courthouse

where General Lee (Confederates) surrenders to Union and ends Civil War

Compromise of 1850

Fugitive Slave Act-made it a federal crime to assist runaway slaves, allowed the arrest of runaway slaves in states where slavery was illegal. Admitted California as a free state. Abolished the Slave trade in the District of Columbia (but not slavery). Al

Bleeding Kansas

months of battles and fighting between pro-slavery and antislavery forces in Kansas. Slavery forces (democrats) and free-soil forces (Republicans) fight for control of Kansas. Popular sovereignty: the people will decide to have slavery or not. Sack of Law

4 causes of the Civil War

1. Conflicts over slavery and states' rights, 2. Lincoln's Election (Election of 1860), 3. The secession of Southern states, The attack on Fort Sumter

Dred Scott decision

Supreme Court ruling that protected the property rights of people who held slaves

3 Causes of the Mexican

American War- 1. Mexico refuses to accept Polk's compromise sent by John Slidell. 2. The Mexican Cavalry attacked United States soldiers and killed 12 of them after the President ordered Zachary Taylor to go to the disputed territory. 3. The Mexican Caval