the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today


the idea that the organisms living on earth today are the modified descendants of common ancestors
- we can explain traits shared by two organisms with the idea that they have defended from a common ancestor, and we can account for differences with the id


the fundamental organizing principle of biology
- the core theme of biology


the scientific study of life

response to the environment
energy adaptation
energy processing
growth and development

some properties and processes we associate with life

1. new properties energy at each level in the biological hierarchy

eight unifying themes that serve as touchstones through this bio book

emergent properties

new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases


the approach of reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study


a combination of components that function together

systems biology

an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts

global climate change

increase in temperature and change in weather patterns all around the planet due mostly to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels from the burning of fossil fuels. the increase in temperature, called global warming, is a major aspect of this term

eukaryotic cell

a type of cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. organisms with these type of cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called ___

eukaryotic cell

this type of cell is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles


contains the cell's DNA (largest organelle in the cell)


the entire region between the nucleus and the outer membrane of the cell (where other organelles are located)


an organelle that carries out photosynthesis

prokaryotic cell
- prokaryotes

a type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. Organisms with these types of cells (bacteria and archaea) are called ___


a double stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogeneous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine; capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's


a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA short for


each chromosome contains one long ___ molecule, with hundreds or thousands of ___ arranged along its length


encode the information necessary to build other molecules in the cell (most notable, the proteins)


play structural roles and are also responsible for carrying out cellular work and thus establish a cells identity


__ provides the blueprints for making proteins


___ serves as a central database


each strain of DNA is made up of four chemical building blocks called ____

A, C, T, G

abbreviations for the types of nucleotides


the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete compliment of an organism;s or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences

gene expression

the entire process, of which info in a gene directs the production of a cellular product is called ___

gene expression

all these RNAs are specified by ___, and the process of their transcription is also referred to as ____


the entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its ___


a typical human cells has two similar sets of ___ and each set has ___ totaling about 3 billion nucleotide pairs

genetic code
(a particular sequence of nucleotides says the same thing in one organism as it does in another)

in translating genes to proteins, all forms of life essentially employ the same ____

proteins (they play structural roles and are also responsible for carrying out cellular work)

establish a cells identity

nucleotide sequences
genetic codes

differences between organisms reflect differences between their ____ rather than between their ____


the DNA of genes controls protein production indirectly, using a related kind of molecule called___ as an intermediary


not all ___ molecules are translated into protein

translated into proteins
- components of the cellular machinery that manufactures proteins
- regulate the functioning of protein-coding genes
- and many other functions

the functions of RNA


the sequence of nucleotides along a gene is transcribed into ___ which is then translated into a specific ___ with a unique shape and function


catalyze specific chemical reactions and are mostly proteins that are crucial to all cells


means to "speed up" specific chemical reactions


the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions with a species, as well as genome comparisons between species

- high-throughput technology
- bioinformatics
- interdisciplinary research teams

three important research developments that made the genomic approach possible

high-throughput technology

tools that can analyze biological materials very rapidly and produce enormous amounts of data


the use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets

interdisciplinary research teams

diverse specialists that may include computer scientists, mathematicians, engineers, chemists, physicists, and biologists from a variety of fields


each type of ___ catalyzes a specific chemical reaction

the ability of many biological processes to self regulate by a mechanism called feedback

how does a cell coordinate its various chemical pathways?


the output

feedback regulation

in this process, the output (or product) of a process regulates that very process

negative feedback

a form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process

negative feedback

positive or negative feedback
the cells breakdown of sugar generates chemical energy in the for m of a substance called ____. when a cell makes more of this than it can use, the excess of this "feeds back" and inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of a pa

positive feedback

a form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process

positive feedback

positive or negative feedback
clotting blood after an injury - platelets of blood aggregate to the wound and the chemicals released by the platelets attract more platelets.


the branch of biology that names and classifies species


three domains of life (for now)

bacteria and archaea

two prokaryotic domains


the domain that includes all eukaryotic organisms

kingdom plantae
kingdom fungi
kingdom animalia
(modes of nutrition)

three kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotes in the domain eukarya
(mostly distinguished by their ____)

cilia (cilium)

extensions of cells that function in locomotion
occur in ___ (eukaryotes/prokaryotes)

decent with modification

contemporary species arose form a succession of ancestors (darwin)

natural selection

the natural environment selects for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the population
- a process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other i

- to know

a way of knowing, an approach to understanding the natural world
- translated in latin it means ___


the search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions


the use of the senses to gather information, either directly or indirectly with the help of tools (such as microscopes) to extend our senses


recorded observations
- items of information on which scientific inquiry is based

inductive reasoning

a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations


a testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data and guided by inductive reasoning. it is a narrower scope than a theory

deductive reasoning
(if all organisms are made up of cells, and all humans are organisms, then humans are composed of cells

a type of logic in which specific results are predicted form a general premise

controlled experiment

an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested


an explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence

model organism

a particular species chose for research into broad biological principles because it is representative of a larger group and usually easy to grow in the lab


the application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industry or commerce but also including uses in basic research