Chapter 12

What was Martin Luther's list of complaints about the Roman Catholic Church called?

Ninety-Five Theses


A reform movement of Western Christianity


A relaxation of penalties for sins people had committed.


In Catholic teachings, this was a place where souls went before they went to heaven.

Desiderius Erasmus

Dutch monk, Catholic priest, and writer. Wrote The Praise of Folly.


A way of doing something.

Martin Luther

A priest who urges a reform. He nailed a list of complaints about the church to the door of a church in Wittenberg called the Ninety-Five Theses.


Those who sided with Luther and protested against the church.

William Tyndale

An important reformer, English professor. Like Luther, he thought that everyone should be able to read and interpret the Bible. Decided to translate the Bible into English.

Ignatius of Loyola

Spanish noble who founded the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits.


A religious order created to serve the pope and the church.


A decision reached by two or more people or groups.


The sharing of power between local governments and a strong central government.

Francis Xavier

Jesuit priest and missionary, he introduced Catholicism to parts of India and Japan.


A French Protestant.

John Calvin

Christian reformer, he taught about predestination, living good lives and obeying God's laws.

Edict of Nantes

A decree issued in 1598 by King Henry IV that granted religious freedom in most of France.

Thirty Years War

A series of religious wars from 1618 to 1638 that involved many of the countries of Europe. When it ended, the Holy Roman Empire no longer existed and the Catholic Church lost dominance over northern Europe.


Church assembly

What was the Catholic Reformation?

The effort to reform the Catholic Church from within.

Why was the Catholic Church stronger in Spain than in many other parts of Europe?

Because of the Spanish Inquisition.

Council of Trent

A meeting where clergy from across Europe came together to discuss, debate, and eventually reform Catholic teachings.

What did King Henry VIII do that makes him a reformation figure?

He declared himself the head of a new church, called the Church of England, or Anglican Church.

How did John Calvin's ideas effect life in Geneva?

He and his followers called Calvinists, passed laws to make people live according to Calvin's teachings. They also banned many forms of entertainment so that the people could stay focused on their religion.

How did Luther's ideas about interpreting the Bible differ from Catholics' ideas?

He thought that everyone should be able to read and interpret the Bible. This belief went against the teachings of the Catholic Church, in which only clergy could interpret the Bible.

Who founded the Anglican Church?

King Henry VIII

Why was King Henry VIII furious and hurt with the pope?

The pope would not let him divorce his wife.

What two areas of society changed as a result of the Reformation?

Self-government and new views of the world.

Who was the man who started the Reformation by nailing a list of complaints to a church door?

Martin Luther

What do they call people who disagreed with and broke away from the Cathic Church?


Who was the founder of the Jesuits order?

Ignatuis of Loyola, a spanish noble.

Who was the founder of the Ursuline Order?

Angela Merici.

What were the documents that were believed to reduce the time a person's soul would spend in purgatory called?


What led people to turn to science?

The desire to investigate and to figure things out on their own.

Where did more Protestants live, in northern or southern Europe?

Northern Europe.

What started the wars of religion in France?

A series of conflicts between Catholics and Huguenots.

What do Catholics call August 27, 1572?

St. Bartholomew's Day.

What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre?

In one night Catholic rioters killed about 3,000 Protestants in Paris. In the days that followed, riots broke out all over France.

Francis Xavier

He travled throughout Asia in the mid-1500s, bringing Catholicism to parts of India and Japan.

By the 1600s, which parts of Europe were mostly Catholic?

By the 1600s, nearly all of southern Europe was still Catholic.

By the 1600s, which parts of Europe were Protestant?

By the 1600s, a majority of people in nourthern Europe had become Protestant.

What did Catholic and Protestant reformations lead to?

Religious changes in Europe.

What was one of the results of the Reformation?

Social changes.

What did missionaries do?

They worked to spread Catholic teachings.

What did Catholic leaders do?

They worked to reform the Catholic church and spread Catholic teachings.

In Wittenburg, what was a common way of sharing ideas with the community?

Nailing documents to the Church door.

What was Pope Leo's reaction to Luthers' 95 Theses?

He called Luther a heretic and excommunicated him.

What was Luthers opinion about indulgences?

Luther thought that only God-not the Pope-could grant forgiveness.

What was the "priesthood of all believers" about?

Luther thought that anyone could have a direct relationship with God. They didn't need priests to talk to God for them.

How did Luther help people understand how God wanted them to live?

Luther translated the Bible's New Testament into German, the common language.