Speech Ch. 3 Vocab

active listening

listening for meaning

bandwagon

propaganda technique that encourages listeners to join a group that favors a particular person, product, or idea because it's popular

begging the question

type of false reasoning in which speakers assume the truth or falsity of a statement without supplying proof

card stacking

type of false reasoning in which speakers select only the evidence and arguments for the side that they support

creative listening

receiving another's ideas but using them to generate one's own creative ideas

credibility

believability

critical listening

examining informative or persuasive messages and drawing conclusions

cultural barriers

learned responses that predispose one to see things a particular way

either/or

propaganda technique that poses arguments between two opposite choices, failing to take into account other possibilities

emotional appeals

propaganda technique that assumes that the listener shares the emotional responses of the speaker

empathetic listening

listening to discern another person's feelings and emotions

evaluating

judging the worth or importance of something

external barriers

environmental hindrances to listening

false generalization

type of false reasoning in which speakers don't have enough evidence to support a broad conclusion, or they selectively leave out details and come to a quick conclusion

false premise

type of false reasoning in which speakers begin with false assumptions that are assumed to be true

glittering generalities

type of false reasoning in which speakers use vague or general words or phrases that express an attitude or idea that has popular support

inductive reasoning

identifying facts and linking them together to support a specific conclusion

informational listening

listening for content and attempting to identify the speaker's purpose, main ideas, and supporting details

interpreting

understanding

listener barriers

psychological blocks to effective listening

loaded words

propaganda technique that uses language that evokes strong feelings and attitudes in the listener to sway an argument

logical fallacies

false methods of reasoning

name calling

propaganda technique that uses a negative term to refer to a group or an idea without providing evidence or proof

non sequitur

type of false reasoning in which speakers assert something that doesn't follow logically or that deals with a totally different subject (from the Latin for "doesn't follow")

opinionatedness

adhering to one's preconceived notions

prejudice

judgment made before all facts are known

propaganda

form of persuasion that discourages listeners from making an independent choice by stating opinions as though they are accepted truths

speaker barriers

obstacles to listening that originate with the speaker

stereotypes

propaganda technique that applies preconceived notions to a person based on his or her membership in a group

testimonial

type of false reasoning in which speakers use an authority or a well-known person to endorse a particular subject or position to gain the listener's approval

transfer

propaganda technique that makes an illogical connection between unrelated things