UGA FDNS 2100 Grossman Spring 2016 Exam 2


1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
most common form of fat in food and body


similar to triglyceride, but contains phosphate an nitrogen
constituent of cell membranes
emulsifying agent


composed of multiple ring structure
cholesterol is a sterol found in foods of animal origin that can be made into bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, vitamin D

Saturated Fatty Acids

no double bonds
solid at room temperature
usually of animal origin (butter, lard) with the exception of coconut oil and palm oil

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

one double bond
liquid at room temperature, but solid if refrigerated
food sources include olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sesame oil

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

two or more double bonds
liquid at room or refrigerator temperature
usually of plant origin
food sources include corn oil, safflower oil

Essential Fatty Acids

linoleic (omega 6 fatty acid)
linolenic (omega 3 fatty acid)
deficiencies cause dry skin, stiff or painful joints

Lipid Digestion

most lipid digestion takes place in the small intestine
lipids must be emulsified by bile before digestion


emulsifies lipids
made from blood cholesterol
reabsorbed and reused unless trapped by soluble fiber, excreted, and then made again using blood cholesterol

Absorption and Transportation of Lipids

small fats ( water soluble) go to blood then liver
large fats (not water soluble) are packaged in chylomicrons put into the lymph system then blood

Lipid Transport in Blood

lipids are transported as lipoproteins (cluster of lipids with protein surrounding it)
types of lipoproteins are: chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)

bad cholesterol
disperses cholesterol throughout body
Ldl - Less healthy

High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)

good cholesterol
transports cholesterol back to liver from cells for disposal
Hdl - Healthy

Health Effects of Lipids

Cardiovascular Disease- elevated total blood cholesterol in is risk factor; dietary saturated fatty acids raise total blood cholesterol (raises LDL and lowers HDL); polyunsaturated fatty acids lower LDL
Omega 3 Fatty Acids- found in fish oil; lowers blood


adding hydrogen gas to a vegetable oil to create a solid oil (fat)
fatty acids become more saturated and trans fats form
an example is adding hydrogen gas to corn oil to create margarine
trans fats formed are harder for your body to metabolize and build u

Plant Sterols

lower blood cholesterol by inhibiting absorption of dietary cholesterol

What percentage of total caloric intake should fat be?

don't go below 15%

What percentage of dietary fat should be saturated?

less than 10%

What is the maximum amount of cholesterol that should be consumed per day?

300 milligrams

Amino Acids

building blocks of proteins'
20 total amino acids- 9 essential (come from diet) and 11 nonessential (can be made in the body)
each amino acid can bond with two others

Protein Structure

amino acids- peptides- polypeptides
protein folding is when a polypeptide folds into a three dimensional structure determined by the amino acid sequence
denaturation is an irreversible change in a protein's shape cause by heat, acid, etc. that disrupts fu

Protein Synthesis

all amino acids must be available
sequence of amino acids in protein is determined by a subunit of DNA and determines the shape and function of the protein
errors may alter a protein's function (ex: sickle cell anemia)

Sickle Cell Anemia

red blood cells become sticky, sickle shaped, and block arteries
cells die at 10-20 days old versus the normal 120 days

Protein Digestion

the stomach denatures protein
it's broken down into amino acids and absorbed


catabolic or anabolic
catalysts that speed up bodily reactions

Fluid Balance

proteins attract water which allows cells to retain fluid

Acid Base Balance

protein acts as buffers
maintains pH of blood

Protein Transport

within the bloodstream
membrane bound carrier

Protein as a Source of Energy

provides 4 kcals per gram
not used for energy unless there's little energy from other sources and/or there's excess protein intake
in severe caloric restriction or low carb diet, the body will turn muscle protein into amino acids then glucose causing musc

Nitrogen Balance

nitrogen is a marker for protein
positive intake (pregnancy, growth, muscle building)
negative intake (weight loss, illness)
zero intake (equilibrium)

Food Sources of Protein

beans and peas
processed soy products
nuts and seeds

Quality, Use, and Need of Protein

protein quality is determined by digestibility and amino acid composition
a complete protein provides all the essential amino acids
complementary proteins are two incomplete proteins that make a complete protein which must be eaten in the same day

Recommended Protein Intake

RDA for adults is .8 grams protein per kilogram body weight
calculation: (body weight/2.2) * .8
excess protein is stored as fat and generates ammonia to be secreted by the kidneys
not recommended to eat more than 2x RDA

Protein Deficiency

Protein/Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is a deficiency of protein and energy and is the most widespread form of malnutrition worldwide

Lacto Oro Vegetarian

avoids meat, fish, poultry
eats eggs and dairy


avoids all animal products

Benefits of Vegetarian Diet

low in cholesterol and saturated fat
high in fiber
contains healthy fats
less chronic disease

Why do people become vegetarians?

environmental concern
aesthetics of meat

Possible Limited Nutrients of Vegan or Vegetarian Diet

vitamin D
vitamin B12
omega 3 fatty acids

Water Soluble Vitamins

travel freely in blood
excess is excreted
needed in frequent doses (1-3 days)


coenzyme of metabolism
nerve membrane integrity
found in pork, whole grains, enriched grains, legumes
deficiency is beriberi causing muscle weakness, wasting of lower extremities, heart failure, edema


coenzyme of metabolism
found in milk, milk products, enriched grains, meat, leafy greens
deficiency causes cracks on corner of mouth, sensitivity to light, skin rash


coenzyme of metabolism
found in protein foods, enriched grains, peanuts
deficiency is pellagra causing diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, death
toxicity causes skin flushing, blurred vision, liver damage


coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis
participates in metabolism of vitamin B12
found in enriched grains, green vegetables, legumes, liver
deficiency causes impaired cell division, megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects

Vitamin B12

participates in metabolism of folate
maintains sheath around nerves
new cell synthesis
found in animal based foods, fortified breakfast cereals, nutritional yeast
deficiency causes pernicious anemia, poor nerve function

Vitamin B6

amino acid metabolism
fat metabolism
makes hemoglobin
neurotransmitter synthesis
found in meat, potatoes, bananas
deficiency causes rashes, scaly skin, depression, confusion, anemia
toxicity causes nerve damage


sulfur containing vitamin
coenzyme of carb, fat, and protein metabolism
found in many foods, whole grains, egg yolks
deficiency causes hair loss, muscle pain, fatigue

Pantothenic Acid

coenzyme of energy metabolism
involved in synthesis of many compounds
found in many foods, meat, whole grains
deficiency causes hypoglycemia, fatigue, apathy

Vitamin C

collagen synthesis
helps in iron absorption
supports the immune system
found in citrus fruits, cabbage type vegetables, dark green vegetables
deficiency is scurvy causing bleeding gums, poor wound healing, bruising, frequent infections

Fat Soluble Vitamins

many require protein carrier for transport
require bile for absorption
stored in body for long periods
can reach toxic levels is consumed in excess

Vitamin A

promotes vision
promotes cell division
supports the immune system
promotes growth
gene regulation
found in liver, fortified milk, cheese
deficiency causes night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratinization, poor growth, poor immunity

Vitamin D

synthesized in body by sunlight
promotes blood calcium levels
found in fortified milk, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish
deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
toxicity causes calcium deposits in soft tissues, kidney damage

Vitamin E

protects Vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids
may decrease the risk of heart disease
protects lungs from air pollution
helps immune function
found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grains
deficiency causes nerve degeneration, breaking

Vitamin K

blood clotting
synthesis of bone proteins
found in leafy green vegetables, cabbage type vegetables, milk, eggs
deficiency causes hemorrhaging, skeletal weakness
toxicity causes reduced effectiveness of anti clotting medicine, jaundice, and red blood cell

Body Mass Index (BMI)

ratio of weight to height
categories: underweight (<17.9), healthy (18-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), obese (>30)

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

most of expended energy
metabolism, breathing, body temperature
while at rest

Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

energy to digest food
about 10% of energy needs

Hunger versus Appetite

hunger- physiological drive to eat
appetite- psychological drive to eat

How many calories are in a pound of fat?


Estimating Body Fat

anthropometry (skinfold)
underwater weighing
bioelectrical impedance
DEXA (x ray)

Influences on Weight Gain and Obesity

heredity and genetics- child with one obese biological parent causes 60% chance of child obesity; child with two obese biological parents causes 90% chance of child obesity
sociocultural influences- food palatability and availability
age and lifestyle- ph

Hunger Hormones

short term- ghrelin (from stomach), increases hunger, increases in amount before meals and decreases after
long term- leptin (from fat cells), decreases hunger, obese people have high leptin but don't respond to it

Infectious Disease

caused by bacteria, virus, or parasite
transmitted through contact

Chronic Disease

typically irreversible
degeneration of body organs
caused by genetic predisposition, medical history, poor lifestyle choices

Leading Causes of Death

heart disease

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

results in 1 million annual deaths in the US
top cause of death in developed nations
men will feel sharp pain in chest
women will feel nausea or sleepiness and are more likely to dies because they won't seek treatment
risks factors- dietary (high in satur


develops when soft, fatty deposits along inner arterials walls enlarge and become hard plaque
if plaque travels to the brain strokes can occur
atherosclerotic plaque induces abnormal blood clotting- thrombus (stationary blood clot), embolus (thrombus that


also known as high blood pressure
caused by constricted blood vessels to increase nutrient and oxygen delivery
exacerbates atherosclerosis and vice versa
risk factors are obesity, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, older age, genetic predisposition

Blood Pressure Assessment

systolic pressure (pressure during contraction of heart
diastolic pressure (pressure during relaxation of heart)
ideal resting is 120/80
borderline normal is 130/85
high is 140/90

Sodium and Hypertension

2006- people were in taking 50% above the upper limit
high sodium diet is associated with hypertension

Diabetes Mellitus

elevation of blood glucose concentrations related to inadequate or ineffective insulin which impairs the ability to regulate blood glucose normally
type 1- pancreas produces little to no insulin
type 2- pancreas makes insulin but cells resist

Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes

controlled carbs
adequate fiber
moderate added sugars
low saturated fat and adequate unsaturated fat
adequate but not very high protein


disease in which cells multiply faster than normal
steps of development- exposure to carcinogen, enters cells, damages or changes call's DNA (initiation), damage promoted by other carcinogens (promotion), cells multiply (tumor formation), cells spread via

Nutrition and Cancer

carcinogens can be found in food
the body can detoxify small amounts of carcinogens in food
carcinogens can develop with food processing
15% of cancer could be eliminated by preventing obesity
diets high in fruits and vegetables are linked to less cancer

Phytochemicals and Cancer

whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are high in antioxidants and phytochemicals and can prevent initiation and progression of cancer
cruciferous vegetables are associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer
food high in phytochemicals promote health an