Exam 2 Combined

Most portentous event of our time s the general obliteration of . . .

distinctions

the 2 proper grounds of elevation . . .

knowledge and virtue

Socialism is a lower, middle, or upper class idea?

middle

According to Weaver, it is not equality but __________ that truly bonds society (because 'X' focuses on others while equality focuses on yourself.)

fraternity

Just societies must offer equality in what area?

before the law

The Greek democracies always made one exception to choosing by lot rule. What was the area of exception?

military commanders

The Founding Fathers and Federalists worked diligently to create a Constitution that embraced democracy. (T/F)

F

the current goal of our educational system

preparing for living successfully in this world (acquire wealth/middle class status)

Aristotle endorsed the idea of infinite progress. (T/F)

F

The removal of _______________ destroys our only link with the young and the old.

sentiment

Older simple societies thought of themselves as abundantly blessed, but modern rich ones constantly feel like they are poor, having to do without. (T/F)

T

The father of nominalism

William of Occam

Decay of sentiment is accompanied by

deterioration of human relationships

_________ can never be a relativist

hero

Weaver argues that in the place of religion we have put ___________________. We rely on this to solve all our problems, but Weaver says that won't work.

education

The three parts to the Great Stereopticon:

the press, the motion picture, the radio

Does Weaver question whether writing is a total blessing?

yes

would Neil Postman like Chapter 5?

yes

The Philistine version of mankind:

life means comfort and distraction

the spoiled child fails to see the connection between __________ and ____________.

effort, reward

the spoiling of man always begins when _________ living dominates ____________ living

urban, rural

according to Weaver, civilization is at its highest when it has maximized ease. (T/F)

F

what type of societies achieve the most according to Weaver?

religious (ones without as much comfort/reason to look beyond?)

Weaver prefers which Greek philosopher?

Plato

Weaver fears that our language drains us of what? We no longer venerate what?

the hero

Weaver fears we need, yet cannot find, a source of __________________.

discipline

according to Weaver, we must defend __________________________.

language

what, according to Weaver, transcends the present?

language

We respect/fear those who are powerful with ________________.

language

A people's philosophy of __________________ captures an important part of them.

language

far more than the scientist, Weaver believes that the _____________ is the essential conveyor of truth.

poet

Does Weaver support symbolism?

yes

in the field of education, does Weaver support translation?

yes

What are the 3 things Weaver says we must regard with piety?

nature, neighbors, past

Weaver believes that the essence of piety is a humble view of man's power. (T/F)

T

Weaver supports "unconditional surrender" military policies. (T/F)

F

According to Weaver, most modern people appear to resent the past and seek to deny its substance for 2 primary reasons. What are they?

confuses and inhibits

Weaver felt our contempt of nature has played out most dramatically in what "movement"?

feminism

according to Weaver, personality is a _________________.

gift

Weaver states that loss of belief always results in some form of _____________.

bitterness

Who wrote Ideas Have Consequences?

Richard M. Weaver

When did Weaver live?

1910-1963

What did Weaver do?

professor at University of Chicago, taught English/rhetoric

what was rare about Weaver and the classes he wanted to teach?

a freshman composition class

Did Weaver every marry?

no

Did John Crowe Ransom like Weaver's book?

yes

When was Ideas Have Consequences published?

1948

According to Weaver, what is our ideal now?

to be unsentimental and detached

Who is a post-modern example that Weave and Dr. Edwards use?

Alfred Korzybski

Who emphasized the importance of words and how there is no reality, just words?

Alfred Korzybski

What is reality for Weaver?

the world of the mind

Does Weaver support particulars or the abstract?

complex; he supports abstract "chairness"/ideals but stocks too abstract; wants particular private property

Who does Chesterton like in the Punic Wars?

Romans

Where does Weaver resemble Berry?

deterioration of human relationships; abortion; euthanasia

Why is the market dangerous?

relativistic

Does Weaver criticize how we don't let anything stay off-stage, or does he like how open we are?

criticizes

what always accompanies the disappearance of the heroic ideal?

growth of commercialism

Does Weaver like jazz?

no

Why should we respect Weaver's opinions on music?

he takes it seriously

Which music genre (according to Edwards) is intentionally placeless?

pop

What is Weaver most interested about in music?

philosophy

What does Weaver think about forms/structure?

likes it

What are the Four Freedoms?

FDR; speech, worship, from want, from fear

why doesn't Weaver like "freedom from want and from fear"?

too abstract; gives government too much power

What are some contrasts between Weaver and Postman?

ideas drive Weaver; different philosophical angles; Weaver- earlier era =better; Weaver likes Middle Ages, Postman hates them; Postman- medium is message, Weaver- idea more important than medium

similarities between Weaver and Postman

both talk about technology; both have 2 types of people; both think we're currently in trouble

What are Weaver's 2 types of people?

Philistines and Medievals

What are Postman's 2 types of people?

Athenians and Visigoths

Describe Postman's Athenians.

knowledge; language used w/grace and precision; tradition=good; public affairs matter; discipline, skill, taste in art; hard to be

Describe Postman's Visigoths.

knowledge for gain; one word as good as the next; me=center of universe; arts=only what is popular; easy/natural to be

what is the Hays Code?

a long list of things that can't be in movies, from 1924-1945

Does Weaver think the Hays Code addresses the right issues?

no

what does Dr. Edwards say is the most anti-Christian movie?

the Wizard of Oz

Is Weaver an agrarian?

yes

What is Weaver called (agrarian)?

St. Paul of the Agrarians

What is the last metaphysical right?

private property

Why does Weaver criticize stocks?

no responsibility

is our ownership too particular or too abstract?

abstract

What does Weaver use as an example of ownership/lack of responsibility?

houses

What caused the dissolution of the West?

poor choice

What is the Whig theory of history?

later=better

Does Weaver endorse the Whig theory of history?

no

Where does nominalism focus?

this world

Why doesn't Weaver like nominalism?

he likes ideas/ideals/oughts

What is seen as progress by many, but Weaver says is actually a "fall"?

abandonment of cultural transcendence

Is literacy/education a cure-all in Weaver's mind?

no

Why are we a weak age?

our goal=comfort

Are we more or less private today?

less

What does Weaver call an abomination (in regard to relationships with others)

winning friends to get advantages and influencing people

what is the fallacy of technology?

what can be done should be done

What does Weaver say about professors? (in Edwards' words)

lunatics; overdeveloped brain

Does Weaver like specialization?

no

what does Weaver use as an example of loss of responsibility/problems of specialization?

atomic bomb project, USA, WW2

in medieval life, knowledge was

mastering principles

today knowledge is

having skills

should knowledge make you proud?

no

Weaver says that the quality of work is ________

declining

why has the quality of work decreased?

ideal has disappeared

What replaced the church?

science

what do we think will solve everything?

education

what societies achieved more?

religious

What have we started to see wars as?

jobs

what country does Weaver talk about in reference to symbolism?

Japan

why does Weaver think foreign languages should be taught?

translation

what does Weaver think is the best language to learn?

Latin

what does translation do?

makes you precise with your words

What does Weaver ask about the moderns?

do they even want to survive?

The ideas of which philosopher were reflected in the American Revolution?

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

What were Montesquieu's ideas?

classical antiquity; constitution; separation of powers; fixed, problematic human nature

The French Revolution reflected the ideas of which philosopher?

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788)

What were Rousseau's ideas?

evil in humans is a result of society's evils; humans basically good; human nature can be made better by political/social change; general will of the people

Which philosopher believed that the true sovereign in the nation should be the general will of the people?

Rousseau

Which philosopher believed that the national will of a people could be embodied in one person?

Rousseau

what was France's fiscal crisis caused by?

spending and support American Revolution

why does Louis XVI convene the Estates General?

he wants to tax the church/nobles

what are the three estates?

church, nobles, commoners

is the Estates General convened often?

no, first time in 200 yr

where does the 3rd estate revolt?

tennis court

what does the 3rd estate form?

National Assembly

when do revolutionaries storm the Bastille?

July 14, 1789

what is Bastille?

prison and armory

When do the revolutionaries produce the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen?

August 1789

what becomes the preamble to France's Constitution of 1791?

the Declaration

Compare French Declaration to US Declaration.

longer; more abstract; but resembles first part of US Declaration

Do Americans ever support the French Revolution?

yes, at first

what does the French Revolution attack?

all authority

which country does the National Assembly go to war with?

Austria

Who was the leader of the Jacobins?

Maximilien Robespierre

Who were the Jacobins?

group of revolutionaries; gain power in September 1792; declare republic; everyone=citizen; new calendar; Reign of Terror

What is Day 1 of Year 1 in the Jacobin calendar?

September 22, 1792

How many days in the week are there in the new French calendar, and why is that important?

10; against religion

How many people does the Reign of Terror kill?

over 40,000

When is King Louis XVI guillotined?

January 1, 1793

What is special about the guillotine?

cheap, scientific, depersonalized

Does the French Revolution/Reign of Terror give democracy a good name in Europe?

No

Who is Jean-Paul Marat?

2nd to Robespierre; ran presses for Jacobins; enemies of Revolution list; bathtub; painting

When were Robespierre/other principals toppled and guillotined?

1794

Who emerges from the French military after the French Revolution?

Napoleon Bonaparte

How does Napoleon claim to continue the revolution?

embodies the revolution

Is France stable between 1789 and 1815?

no; 6 constitutions

Who painted The Death of Marat and Napoleon at the Saint Bernard Pass?

Jacques-Louis David

What is The Death of Marat (1793) similar to?

Pieta

Who painted Prayer at Valley Forge (1975)?

Arnold Friberg

Compare mythology of Americans versus mythology of French.

paintings; praying Washington, Napoleon on rearing horse

Lord Acton's Analysis of Freedom

continental idea of freedom (state=supreme end) versus Anglo-American tradition of freedom (liberty=end; individuals important; moral obligation)

what is the Continental Idea of Freedom?

state=supreme end; state has no limits; individual receives fulfillment of liberty by being part of state; moral authority in state

what is the Anglo-American Tradition of Freedom?

liberty=end; liberty of individuals more important than state; no liberty without morality

Who was 2nd president of USA?

John Adams

Did John Adams want to be president?

yes

Did John Adams want to be reelected, and was he?

yes; no

who revives the reputations of Harry S. Truman and John Adams?

David McCullough

who was the 3rd president of the USA?

Thomas Jefferson

what was Jefferson's stepping stone to presidency?

secretary of the state

What is the Virginia Dynasty?

for awhile, the presidents of America were mostly Virginians (Wash, Jeff, Mad, Monroe)- 4 of the first 5

who was the American Sphinx?

Thomas Jefferson

who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

does Jefferson free his slaves at his death?

no

whose library becomes basis of Library of Congress?

Jefferson's

who is Jefferson accused of having an affair with?

Sally Hemmings

was Jefferson an advocate of strict construction?

yes

who was president during the Louisiana purchase?

Thomas Jefferson

what purchase starts us on the path of empire?

Louisiana purchase

does Jefferson change Hamilton's financial policies?

no

did Jefferson like being president?

no

what does Jefferson put on his tombstone?

dec of independence, VA Statue; UVA

When is the Louisiana Purchase?

1803

What land is bought by the Louisiana Purchase?

any land that drains into Mississippi River

Who explored the Louisiana Purchase?

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

Who was the leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition?

both

Who was the personal secretary of Jefferson who went on expedition?

Meriwether Lewis

When was the Lewis and Clark expedition?

1804-1806

do people die on the Lewis and Clark expedition?

only one; Charles Floyd; appendix

Who is Edward's favorite expedition member? war of 1812, in nineties, civil war office, last living of explorers

Patrick Gass

Where do Lewis and Clark spend first winter?

Mandan North Dakota

Who joins Lewis and Clark as translator?

Toussaint Charbonneau

Who is Charbonneau's wife/slave?

Sacagawea

What is Clark's slave's name?

York

Who is Seaman?

Clark's newfoundland dog

What are Dr. Rush's pills?

laxatives made of mercury

What mountains do Lewis and Clark need to cross?

Bitterroot Mountains

which Indians do Lewis and Clark trade with for horses to cross mountains?

Shoshone Indians

How do Lewis and Clark get the horses to cross the mountains?

Sacagawea's brother=chief

How do Lewis and Clark decide where to winter on West Coast?

vote

what happens to Clark when the expedition ends?

marries sweetheart, names 1st child Meriwether

what happens to Lewis when the expedition ends?

sweetheart doesn't wait; Governor of Territory; writer's block; suicide

who was Jefferson's VP?

Aaron Burr

what is the one thing Hamilton and Jefferson agreed about?

hated Burr

why does Hamilton write against Burr?

Burr wants to be governor of NY

where do Hamilton and Burr duel?

New Jersey

who dies in the duel between Hamilton and Burr?

Hamilton

what is the crime of America according to Edwards?

Burr killing Hamilton (VP, secretary of treasury)

do Jefferson and Adams become friends in old age?

yes

When do Adams and Jefferson die? Who dies first?

July 4, 1826; Jefferson

Who was the fourth president of USA?

James Madison

where was Madison from?

Virginia

who was the Father of the Constitution?

James Madison

what war occurs during Madison's presidency?

War of 1812 (second war for independence)

Who were the warhawks of 1812?

Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun?

why do we go to war with Britain in 1812?

sea trade and sailors' rights

Henry Clay- from, position, nickname, characteristic

KY, Speaker of the House, Harry of the West, compromiser

John C. Calhoun represents . . .

the south

Daniel Webster- warhawk?- from- represents

no; Massachusetts; represents the north

Where do the Brits attack (war of 1812)?

Washington DC

What is the most famous fight of War of 1812?

Bladensburg

What is James Madison's nickname?

Frail Jimmy

Where is the Star Spangled Banner written?

Fort McHenry, Baltimore

Who writes the Star Spangled Banner?

Francis Scott Key

Who was the seventh president of USA?

Andrew Jackson (1767-1845)

who was the first president born poor?

Andrew Jackson

where was Andrew Jackson from?

Tennessee

Andrew Jackson hates _________ and ___________

Indians, British

Why does Andrew Jackson fight duels?

wife's honor

Who is Old Hickory?

Andrew Jackson

When does Andrew Jackson become national heroic figure?

War of 1812

What does Jackson do in the War of 1812?

gathers TN and KY mountain men in unit; Horseshoe Bend; Pensacola; New Orleans

When was the Battle of New Orleans?

January 1815

was the Battle of New Orleans (War of 1812) meaningless?

no

what ends War of 1812?

Treaty of Ghent

who are the Americans' diplomats for the Treaty of Ghent?

John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay

what were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent?

status quo antebellum

list the results of the War of 1812.

1) clears the way for American western expansion; 2) Indians=losers; 3) Federalists discredited; 4) Era of good feelings; 5) America seen as truly independent

when is the Second Great Awakening?

starts in 1790s, most identified with 1820s and 1830s

where are the major revivals of the Second Great Awakening?

west

what are the causes of the Second Great Awakening (2)?

1) reaction against emergent theologies; 2) America falling away from religion

what are the emergent theologies at the time of the 2nd Great Awakening?

deism, unitarianism, universalism

what do Unitarians believe?

man too good for God to damn

what do Universalists believe?

God too good to damn man

why is America falling away from religion before 2nd Awakening?

security; foreign influence; frontier's isolation

what is the method of the 2nd Awakening?

circuit riding

Who is the most famous circuit rider of 2nd Great Awakening?

Francis Asbury (1745-1816)

What is the worst thing to happen to circuit rider according to Francis Asbury?

marriage

what was the largest denomination in USA by 1840s?

Methodism

what were the effects of the 2nd Great Awakening? (10)

thousands of souls won; many denominations founded; Baptist and Methodist churches flourish; temperance movement; women's movement; prison reform; education movement; death knell for slavery; heart over head/common man; sectarianism, schism, bickering (wh

Who was America's Revivalist?

Charles Grandison Finney

Who is the preeminent example of the industrial revolution in USA?

Eli Whitney (1765-1825)

Who invented the cotton gin?

Eli Whitney

What was the unintended consequence of the cotton gin?

slavery was profitable again; kept slavery alive

How much of the world's cotton production is done in the USA by the 1840s?

7/8

Who invented the first
practical
steamboat?

Robert Fulton (1765-1815)

What was the name of the first practical steamboat (and when was it made)?

Clermont (1807)

What is the unintended consequence of the steamboat invention?

Mississippi River=highway

When was the Erie Canal created?

1825

What does the Erie Canal do?

connects Great Lakes to Hudson to Atlantic to world

What does John Deere invent and when?

iron-tipped plow, 1830s

Who invented the iron-tipped plow?

John Deere

What does Cyrus McCormick invent and when?

mechanical reaper, 1830s

Who invented the mechanical reaper?

Cyrus McCormick

What are the four components of the Industrial Revolution?

1. machines 2. power 3. labor 4. capital

when is the railroad boom in USA?

1830s

what is the name of the first steam locomotive of USA?

Tom Thumb

benefits of railroads

quickly travel overland, beating water routes, any direction, don't freeze

Who was the author who wasn't impressed by the industrial revolution- "baboons or men"?

Henry David Thoreau (1854)

Who invented the telegraph/when?

Samuel Morse/1844

what were the first words over the telegraph?

What hath God wrought?

Who was elected in USA's 1844 election?

James Knox Polk

When did Polk live?

1795-1859

What was the election of 1844 seen as a mandate for?

manifest destiny

who was the first dark horse presidential candidate to win (USA)?

James Knox Polk

Who is Young Hickory?

James Knox Polk

What is Polk's slogan? refers to -___________; is it fulfilled in his presidency?

54, 40, or fight; northern parallel line; no

when are Americans flooding into Mexico (Texas)?

1820s forward

what do the Mexicans want the Americans to do (Texas)?

follow the laws; have allegiance to Mexico

who was Mexico's leader during the Mexican-America war?

Santa Anna

when does Santa Anna crack down on Texans?

1835

When does Texas declare the Republic of Texas?

1836

Who leads the Texan Army?

Sam Houston

Who annexes Texas?

the lame duck president (before Polk)

What happens first- Mexican-American War or Texan independence?

Texan independence

Where is the Mexican-American War started?

Palo Alto

when is the Mexican War?

1846-1848

where does USA send its 3 armies in Mexican War?

San Diego, straight to Mexico, Mexico City (through Veracruz)

what are USA's 3 famous amphibious invasions?

Veracruz, D-Day, Korean War- Inchon

When is the treat that ends the Mexican War? What is it called?

February 1848, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

terms of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Texas Border=Rio Grande; top 1/3 of Mexico=USA

what is the insult to injury for the Mexicans after losing the northern part of Mexico?

gold found in CA that July

what is the Gadsden Purchase? (when, who, why)

1853, Prez Franklin Pierce, transcontinental railroad

What are the impacts of the Mexican War? (4)

light losses; world respects USA's military might; "Colossus of the North"; "classroom of the Civil War

Who criticized the Mexican War?

Henry David Thoreau; Abraham Lincoln

Who said that the Mexican territory that USA gained would be arsenic to USA?

Ralph Waldo Emerson

What was the Missouri Compromise?

border of slavery

Who wanted to add a clause to the Guadalupe Hidalgo treaty saying that all new land=free? (name, state, party)

David Wilmot, PA, Democrat

When does CA want to be a state?

1850

why is CA a difficult state to admit?

wants to be free; part of it below slavery line

What must we avoid above all when studying history?

historical self-righteousness

what is the key trait of historian?

imagination

What war influenced Woodrow Wilson's views toward World War I?

Civil War

in 1914, what person in Wilson's life died?

his wife

Who had the largest army in the world at the beginning of the 20th century?

Germany

who was the ruler of Germany @ outbreak of WW1?

Kaiser Wilhelm II

who was Wilhelm II's grandmother?

Queen Victoria

who were Wilhelm's cousins?

King George (England) and Czar Nicholas of Russia

after five months in WWI, how many were dead?

nearly a million

Who does Wilson fall in love with?

Edith Galt

what luxury liner was sunk by the Germans?

Lusitania

How many drowned in the sinking of the Lusitania?

1200

when did the Lusitania sink in relation to the Titanic?

3 years after

What were "dud" shells nicknamed by British troops?

Wilsons

How many casualties were in the Battle of Somme?

1 million

what famous phrase did Wilson utter when asking Congress for a declaration of war?

the world must be made safe for democracy

who was sent to Russia by the Germans?

Vladimir Lenin

Americans were fighting for what in WWI?

peace

when was the Armistice signed (WWI)?

November 11, 1918

How many died in four years of war? (WWI)

nearly 10 million

what was the only part of Wilson's plan that he got into the Treaty of Versailles?

League of Nations

Did the US adopt the Versailles treaty?

no

Who was a waiter at the Versailles palace?

Ho Chi Minh

When was Franz Ferdinand assassinated?

June 28, 1914

Whose assassination started the falling dominoes of WWI?

Franz Ferdinand

which group assassinated Franz Ferdinand?

Black Hand (Serbian nationalists)

where was Franz Ferdinand assassinated?

Bosnia, part of Austria-Hungary

Does Serbia cooperate with Austria's investigation?

yes

when does Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia?

July 28, 1914

Who mobilizes to protect Serbia, and when? WWI

Russia, July 30

Who declares war on Russia on August 1?

Germany

Where does Germany invade on August 1?

Luxembourg

When does Germany declare war on France and invade Belgium?

August 3

When does England declare war on Germany?

August 4

Dominoes of WWI

Ferdinand assassinated (June 28); Austria-Hungary, war on Serbia; Russia mobilizes to protect Serbia; Germany, war on Russia; Germany invades Luxembourg; Germany, war on France/invades Belgium; England, war on Germany

Lessons from WWI, WWII, what now

don't get big countries involved; stop dictator early; now, WWII's lesson

Central Powers (WWI)

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

Triple Entente (WWI)

England, France, Russia

Which side does Italy join?

Allied

When does USA join the war?

April 6, 1917

With what treaty does Russia drop out of the war? It is made with the ____________.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918); with Central Powers

Who do the Germans study to develop their WWI plan? Why?

Buffalo Bill, use of railways

What was the German plan? WWI

Schlieffen "Swinging Door" Plan; knockout France and then focus on Russia

Who used U-boats?

Germany

What aspect of Germany's fighting violates international just war code?

using U-boats and not giving warning/saving survivors

new techs in WWI

poison gas, machine guns, barbed wire, airplanes, tanks

what is "eliminated" or changed in WWI?

heroism

What is shell shock?

mental reaction to randomness of World War fighting

Which side did USA have ethnic ties to? WWI.

both England and Germany

does American neutrality bring profit? WWI

yes

What is Wilson's 1916 campaign slogan?

he kept us out of war

What was the Zimmerman note?

Germans to Mexicans; Mexico should declare war on USA and gain land

what were the 2 last straws for Wilson for declaring war?

Lusitania and the Zimmerman Note

Is a democracy/republic a good political system in wartime?

no

does the president of USA tend to give back all war-time power after the war?

no; ratcheting effect

What wars are hard to end? Give examples.

wars on abstractions; FDR on economics, Johnson and poverty; Reagan and drugs; Bush and terrorism

what is war socialism?

giving great power to the president during times of war

what amendment is an example of war socialism? (USA)

16th Amendment in 1913; legalizes income tax

who leads the food administration during WWI?

Herbert Hoover

What are 2 examples of war socialism?

Daylight Savings Time and Selective Service Act (May 18, 1917)

What is the Selective Service Act?

example of war socialism; the draft; WWI; still in place today

What did the media call these 2 things instead of using the word German?

liberty cabbage and liberty measles

who were the 4-minute men, and how many were there? WWI

men who gave 4 min war update/rah-rah speech; 75,000

Name the act that restricted criticism of the government during WWI.

Espionage and Sedition Acts

Who was the most famous person arrested under the Espionage and Sedition Acts?

Eugene V. Debs

What was the most important ruling on free speech by the Supreme Court? When? What did it establish?

Schenck v United States; 1917; Clear and Present Danger

Who were the big four @ Versailles?

David Lloyd George (Britain); Georges Clemenceau (France); Vittorio Orlando (Italy); Woodrow "Fourteen Points" Wilson (USA)

was the Versailles treaty merciful to Germans?

no; war guilt and punishment; money and territory

in hindsight, which treaty leads to WW2?

Treaty of Versailles

Who might've acted as the first woman president?

Edith Wilson

what do we call the generation of Europeans who died in the trenches?

lost generation

what movement arises in Europe at the time of the WWI?

postmodernity

When was the Influenza Pandemic?

1918-1919

how many does the Influenza Pandemic kill?

30-100 million

what is the cytokine storm?

when the immune system turns against you

those distinctions which create society

Most portentous event of our time is the general obliteration of

knowledge and virtue

the two proper grounds of elevation are

middle

Socialism is a lower, middle, or upper class idea?

fraternity

According to Weaver, it is not equality but ...... that truly bonds society (because ...... focuses on others while equality focuses on yourself).

the law

Weaver argues that just societies must offer equality in ....., but not in conditions or authority.

Military Commanders

The Greek democracies always made one exception to the choosing by lot rule. What was the area of exception?

False

The founding fathers and federalists worked diligently to create a Constitution that embraced democracy. (T/F)

help the bourgeois man get a good (well paid) job and be comfortable.

The current goal of our educational system is to....

False

Aristotle endorsed the idea of infinite progress. (T/F)

sentiment

the removal of ..... destroys our only link with the young and the old.

True

Older simple societies thought of themselves as abundantly blessed, but modern rich ones constantly feel like they are poor, having to do without. (T/F)

William of Occam

The father of nominalism:

education

Weaver argues that in the place of religion we have put ..... We rely on this to solve all of our problems, but Weaver says that won't work.

press, motion picture, radio

the three parts to the Great Stereopticon

yes

Does Weaver question whether writing is a total blessing? (y/n)

not knowing how to read.

If you read nothing but things that debase you then you're better off.....

yes

Would Neil Postman like Chapter 5? (the chapter about some of the abuses in writing)

comfort and distraction

the Philistine version of mankind is that life means...

discipline and sacrifice

the Medieval version of mankind is that life means...

Philistine vs Medievals

Weaver uses two groups, one Christian and one the enemy of Christianity, as an analogy to make his points. What are those two groups?

Athenians and Visigoths

Postman uses two groups, neither associated with Christianity, as an analogy to make his points. What are those two groups?

effort and reward

The spoiled child fails to see the connection between...

urban, rural

the spoiling of man always begins when ..... living dominates ..... living.

urban

This way of life is considered by weaver to be artificial and disconnected.

false

According to Weaver, civilization is at its highest when it has maximized ease. (T/F)

religious

What type of societies achieve the most according to Weaver?

Plato

Weaver prefers which Greek philosopher: Plato or Aristotle?

the heroic

Weaver fears that our language drains us of what? We no longer venerate what? (think of the history he relates regarding the language we use in reference to soldiers).

discipline

Weaver fears we need, yet cannot find, a source of .....

Sans culottes

Radical group of French Revolutionaries that are the main reason we all wear pants today. They insisted on all people wearing the same clothing to symbolize equality between everyone.

Cathedrals

A building that only religious people would build, because the people who build it know that they will never use it, it takes multiple generations and hundreds of years to build, it takes the entire community to build and you must be heavenly minded to wa

Children

Heavenly minded people have lots of ...... while earthly minded people will not because ..... are an annoyance, they are expensive and they do not bring worldly comfort.

foreign languages

Americans don't bother to learn ..... because if education is about $ then there is no reason to learn .......

language

According to Weaver, we must defend .... (because it transcends the present, because we respect/ fear those who are powerful with ....., because a people's philosophy of ...... captures an important part of them, etc.)

Poet

Far more than the scientist, Weaver believes that the ..... is the essential conveyor of truth.

yes

Does Weaver support symbolism? (y/n)

no

In the field of education, does Weaver support translation? (y/n)

Dead language

which does Weaver like better, a live or dead language? (he likes languages that can't keep changing and that are more about the writing than speaking)

Nature, Neighbors, the Past

Weaver says that we must regard three things with piety. What are they?

true

Weaver believes that the essence of piety is a humble view of man's power. (T/F)

Confuses them and inhibits them

According to Weaver, most modern people appear to resent the past and seek to deny its substance for two primary reasons. List them:

Feminist movement

Weaver felt our contempt of nature has played out most dramatically in what "movement"?

a gift

According to Weaver, personality is...

biterness

Weaver states that the loss of belief always results in some form of ......

choices

Weaver believes that we could have made and still can make different ...... and that things can only improve if we recognize our ability to make .......

Whig theory of history

This theory of history states that the most advanced point in time is automatically the most developed and therefore is better than anything before it.

Nominalism

this view denies the existence of universals

materialism

This view states that the material world is all that can be known and is probably all that there is. Like nominalism, this view denies that ideals like honor and love actually exist, and denies that there is a reality in our minds. Instead it affirms that

good person

Weaver believes that reason is only good if it is used by a ....

obscenity

Weaver argues that moderns fail to recognize....

Business

....... and sentiment do not mix. (It's not personal, it's just .....)

fraternity

An ideal coming from the hierarchical family that refers to brotherhood.

Property

Weaver would argue that we have a very odd understanding of .... if we consider stock to be ..... (because our name is not associated with it, no one knows we have it, we don't even really know what we necessarily own stock in.)

Jazz

Weaver attacks this style of music because the medium is the message, and in this style of music improvisation and individual interpretation is emphasized over respect for tradition.

Pop

this style of music is intentionally place-less and has no roots in order to appeal to everyone.

Real Private Property

With ..... there is a sense of responsibility, accountability and community that doesn't exist in a stock ownership system.

Eminent Domain

Weaver believes that the Supreme Court ruling in favor of ..... has eliminated the right of private property. ...... requires that you justify your ownership of property, and allows the Government to argue that they have a better use for the land and so t

Baron de Montesquieu

US Revolution reflected the ideas of this man: ..... (he believed in a fixed sinful human nature, in separation of powers and in classical antiquity)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The French Revolution reflected the ideas of this man: ...., who was the father of Romanticism (believed that mankind is naturally good)

Romanticism

if people are good, then something in society causes people to do bad things, so human nature can be made better by political and social change. Education is crucial because if people know what is right, being naturally good they will naturally chose to d

general will of the people

The true sovereign in the nation, according to the French Revolution, is the ....., though the ....... could find itself expressed in a single great leader.

Napoleon

..... was a French leader who considered himself the embodiment of the french revolution, though there is much debate.

Financial

by the end of the 18th century, there was a massive ..... crisis in France, leading to a lot of political tension

Estates-General

this was a meeting called by King Louis XVI because he wanted to tax the church and the nobles. The church, the Nobles and the Commoners (90% of France) each got one vote.

Tennis Court Meeting

this meeting of just the representatives for the commoners came quickly after the Estates-General and was about how they wanted more votes because commoners made up 90% of France. Resulted in the formation of the Forms National Assembly

Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789

Marking the 1st Day of the Revolution, this place was symbolic for the French people because they were throwing off the old, arming themselves and Freeing political prisoners.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

the preamble to the French Constitution of 1791. Instead of we feel forced to revolt (As is implied by the US Declaration of Ind.) this document declares the wants of the leaders of the revolution and states a clear desire to break with the past and begin

Austria

The new French government secures their power by declaring war on .....

Jacobins

A radical left French group led by Robespierre who kept fighting to overthrow the King and to establish universal suffrage. In September of 1792 they take power, chuck the new constitution and declare France a republic.

Calendar

To symbolize their break from the past, their break from old religions and their acceptance of all things scientific, the Jacobins establish a new ....... that starts on Sept. 22, 1792 and makes a week 10 days instead of 7.

Reign of Terror

The name given to the time period in France where the Jacobins started killing everyone who disagreed with them and everyone who had once been in power.

Guillotine

Name of the technology that modernized executions, making it more efficient, completely impersonal and made "democracy" a dirty word for some time.

Jean-Paul Marat

This man was the Jacobin in charge of the News Papers. He had so much power that his papers declaring a person an enemy of the state was all the evidence needed for them to be executed. He was painted by Jacques-Louis David and was depicted in a way that

Napoleon Bonaparte

There is debate then and today about whether this man embodied the general will of the people or tried to preserve the revolution. He uses the military to bring France under control and move away from anarchy.

crowns himself

At his Coronation, Napoleon ....... instead of letting the Pope crown him as was traditional. The move symbolized his own authority over the church instead of the other way around.

The Continental idea of freedom

In this idea of freedom, the State is supreme and knows no limits, so you're free if you're a part of the state.

Anglo-American tradition of freedom

In this idea of freedom, liberty is the end in itself, so the individual is greater than the state and Liberty is a moral obligation (no liberty without morality, no morality without religion) meaning liberty is the freedom to restrain yourself and govern

John Adams

the 2nd president of the US, he loses to Thomas Jefferson when running for a 2nd term and he actually steps down instead of holding on to the presidency which sets the precedent that we have today.

David McCullough

proved the power of biographers and historians by writing a biography of John Adams who until that book, had never been a popular president.

Thomas Jefferson

the 3rd president of the US, wrote the Dec. of Ind., 2 term president, from VA, hated being president and considered it a "splendid misery", created a school in VA, had a close friendship with John Adams (they both died on the same day which was the 50th

VA Dynasty

The first several US presidents all came from VA.

TJ and Debt

TJ doesn't free his slaves at his death because of his debt, though he didn't believe in debt and thought it was irresponsible to place one's monetary burdens on one's children.

Library of Congress

TJ's collection of books became the corner stone of the ....

Louisiana Purchase

This doubles the size of the US. TJ is torn when he recieves the offer because he knows it's a good deal and he believes it will allow everyone to be the ideal yeoman farmer, but the constitution doesn't expressly state that he can make such a decision, s

Meriwether Lewis

Asked by TJ to explore the Louisiana purchase, chooses William Clark to help lead (both equally in command), when he returns from the trip he loses everything and eventually commits suicide.

William clark

the other leader on the Lewis and ..... expedition to explore the Louisiana purchase

The Lewis and Clark expedition

This started in Sain Lewis, they sailed up the Misouri River, spent their 1st winter in North Dacota, made it to the Pacific by the 2nd winter. Charled Floyed was the only casualty, Patrick Gass lived the longest (was a tough guy), Seaman the dog and York

Toussant Charbonneau

French Canadian tracker who meets Lewis and Clark and helps them reach the pacific

Sacagawea

wife/ slave to Toussant Charbonneau, had a baby, Jean Baptiste who came along when she and Charb. helped Lewis and Clark.

Dr. Benjamin Rush

Best educated American at the time of the Lewis and Clark expedition, gave Lewis the crash courses in science, Rush's pills (almost pure mercury) were just a laxitive

Alexander Hamilton duel with Aaron Burr

this event resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton, it started because Hamilton stoped Burr from getting elected as NY mayer. Burr kills Hamilton and then eventually goes off to Europe

Aaron Burr

Vice President under Thomas Jefferson

James Madison

Father of the constitution, only president to have been on the front lines of a battle, was president during the War of 1812,

War of 1812

2nd war for independence, tension built because of British impressment and US desire for free trade, War Hawks clamored for war, the British invaded inland all over the place and burned the White House down, Fort McHenry holds out which leads to the writi

Impressment

British Navy kept kidnapping US sailors

Henry Clay

Wark Hawk, from Kentucky (which was the frontier at the time), considered the Great comprimisor

Daniel Webster

Not a war hawk, was from Massachusetts and represented northern interests in congress, was constantly disagreeing with John C. Calhoon

John C. Calhoon

War hawk, represented southern interests in congress, constantly disagreed with Daniel Webster

Andrew Jackson

7th president of the US, born poor, orphaned during the war, hated the british, changed the Dem. Repub.s into the Democrats, led the military in the most important battle of the War of 1812 (before he was pres), was then a national hero and was elected tw

Battle in New Orleans

Most important battle of the War of 1812, happened after the war was technically over, Jan 8, 1815, Jackson abandoned typical warfare in order to win, shooting long range at officers from cover

Ghent treaty

signed in Belgium, chief Negotiators were Henry Clay (Yankee)and John Quincy Adams (Quintessential Southern Gentleman), Status Quo Antibellum

Status Quo Antibellum

Big do-over, everyone get's all their stuff back, (this was the result of the Ghent treaty)

Impact of the War of 1812

Europe now sees the US as an independent player, though still somewhat insignificant, nationalism gets a big boost in the US, federalism goes away (they got a bad name at the end because they talked about seceding before the war of 1812 happened)

2nd Great Awakening

Starts in 1820s-30s, 1st Big cultural event that starts in the West and then moves east, emergence of theologies contrary to the teaching of the Word of God (Deism, Unitarianism, Universalism)

Deism

religion where God is like a great clock maker who wound up the clock and then has just let it alone to run.

Unitarianism

a religion for the elite that believes in logic above all (Harvard was founded on this religion), emphasizes the goodness of man, Man's too good for God to damn

Universalism

a religion for the lower class, believed that God would ultimately save everyone, God's too good to damn anyone.

Circuit Riders

Methodist preachers who would travel in a circuit and preach for a few days in different places, then move on.

Francis Asbury

most famous circuit rider

Effects of the 2nd Great Awakening

Thousands of soul won for Christ, many new denominations formed (Mormons, Church of Christ), Baptist and Methodist Churches flourish (still do today), social reform

Charles Grandison Finney

America's Foremost Revivalist

Social reform as a result of the 2nd Great Awakening

Temperance movement (against alcohol), Women's movement (during the revivals, women were encouraged to speak up), prison reform (they start to move from punishment to trying to reform), education, abolition movement, religion (becomes an emotional and not

Abolition movement

this movement gets started during the 2nd Great Awakening, it takes decades and is a part of what causes the churches to split as one side interprets the bible literally and the other takes a looser interpretation

Industrialism (American style)

this movement because of how it led to an abundance of technology changed the common man's way of life, way of thinking and general philosophy

Eli Whitney

inventor of the Cotton Gin, 1793

Cotton Gin

this invention allowed a person to do 50 times more work in a day than they could without the machine, it allowed cotton to be cleaned much faster and it led to an increased demand for slave labor to pick cotton in order to keep up with the new rate at wh

Robert Fulton

inventor of the steamboat which he called Clermont.

Steamboat

this invention allowed goods to be taken upstream

Erie canal

built from 1812-1825, this connected the Midwest with the east and ultimately with Europe by water.

Tom Thumb

The first railroad, created in 1830, useful because railroads don't freeze, they can be used all year round

John Deere

inventor of the steel tip plow

steel tip plow

this invention allowed farmers to plow ground they couldn't before

Cyrus McCormick

inventor of the reaper

reaper

this invention meant that it took fewer people to reap crops

Samuel Moris

this man invented the telegraph. The first words over the telegraph were "What hath God wrought?

Henry David Thoreau

elderly curmudgeon who advised that we ought to think more about how our inventions are changing us. He also thought that the new territory that was gained after the Mexican war would divide the US and was akin to the country swallowing arsenic.

Components of the Industrial Revolution

Machines lead to more power which leads to a need for more labor which requires capital. So those with capital ultimately have the power.

How Industrialization changes work

because of industrialization work is done by machines not by artisans and it led to a massive increase in the number of children and women working

The Whig Party

This political party named itself after the political party in England that always opposed the king. They went with this name because they felt that Andrew Jackson had taken too much power as president.

James Knox Polk

this candidate won the election of 1844. He was a member of the Democratic party and was nicknamed "Young Hickory" (Andrew Jackson was called "Old Hickory"). He was very jacksonian, his focus was manifest destiny and he was a 1 term pres. by choice. He wa

Manifest Destiny

the idea that it was God's ordained destiny for America to expand across the continent of North America.

54 40 or Fight

this was James Knox Polk's campaign slogan. It meant that he wanted to extend the US borders to the 54th parallel, but in office, he actually negotiated it to the 49th parallel only.

Background to the Mexican War

1820's Moses, Austin leads Americans to settle Texas even though Texas belonged to Mexico. Americans were supposed to swear loyalty to Mexico when they moved into Texas but they didn't and Mexico let is slide because it was good business,

Texas

people would move to this territory in order to get away from Government, debt etc. (GTT, Gone to .....)

Battle of Gonzales

1st Battle of Texas' war for independence, 1835

1836

year when Texas declares itself independent

The Alamo

William Barret Travis won't give up ......., but in the end, everyone who holds out there is killed. (This is one of the battles in Texas' war for independence)

Republic of Texas

For a decade, Texas was the .... because they had declared independence from Mexico, but the US wouldn't take them for fear of angering Mexico and because of the political disagreements in Congress.

Polk annexes Texas

This act by Polk leads to the Mexican war.

Mexican War

in 1847 mostly, and happens over the US annexing Texas and the debate about where to place the border of Texas, at the Nueces river or at the Rio Grande river.

Winfield Scott

this General led a famous amphibious assault on Veracruz during the Mexican war

Veracruz, D-Day/ Normandy, Inchon

Three famous American Amphibious assaults

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Feb 2, 1848, Not an unconditional surrender, the US got the top 1/3 of Mexico, Texas is confirmed a part of the US, the US is increased by another 1/3

Gadsden Purchase

this purchase comes in 1853, and and after this purchase there have been no changes to the continental US

Effects of the Mexican War

US becomes a World power and the dominant power in the Americas after the Mexican War, the War was the training ground for the Civil War (all of the important generals from the civil war fought in the Mexican war

Gold Rush

this event happened in 1848 in California, just after the Mexicans lost that territory to the US

Historical self-righteousness

assuming that you would have done better than the people in history if you had been there.

Biblical pro-slavery argument

Literal interpretation of the bible, ideal of Christian Slavery (Don't be an abusive slave owner, but slavery is ok), Denominational splits over literal or interpretive biblical teaching

Constitutional pro-slavery argument

This document is the highest law of the land and it says that slavery is fine. This document was the agreed upon standard when the 3/5ths compromise was added.

3/5 ths compromise

slaves are 3/5ths of a person under the constitution to settle the population dispute between larger and smaller states as they were figuring out how many representatives they could have in the House of Representatives

Historical pro-slavery argument

all historical civilizations had slaves, including the Greeks and the Romans whom we so admire.

Economic pro-slavery argument

slavery is kinder economically than the "wage slaves" in the north because slave owners take far better care of slaves than corporations and industrial capitalists take care of their "free" employees. Besides, you're always going to have the poor, and we

Why does the North Care? pro-slavery argument

The North can do what it wants, slavery is the South's issue, so let the South deal with it. Besides, the North profited plenty from slavery when they hauled all the slaves over on ships.

Economic necessity pro-slavery argument

$2-3 billion wrapped up in slaves

Gettysburg address

3rd most important document in US history because it dates the founding of American to the Declaration of Independence and not to the Constitution, thereby giving the Dec. of Ind. more weight than the Const.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

the most influential book in US history because of it's ugly portrayal of slavery, popularize abolitionism. South Furious because the author was not a southerner and had never been to the South nor seen slavery.

Biblical abolition argument

a non-literal interpretation of the Bible allows for a biblical rejection of slavery

Dec. of Ind. abolition argument

this document states the abstract ideals of America and should have more weight than the 3/5ths rule in the constitution.

Progressive abolition argument

We are trying to create a shinning city on a hill, a progressive new world, so it doesn't matter that past societies had slaves.

Abstract freedom abolition argument

...... trumps everything, so even though some slave owners treat their slaves better than factory workers are treated, slavery is ultimately an affront to the idea of free labor.

Fair punishment abolition argument

The south doesn't see why the North cares whether or not the south has slaves, but the North says "deal with it" and it's ..... for the south having slaves in the first place.

Economic Regionalism between North and South

Tension builds between the north and south because of their two different cultures that are founded on two different economic systems. As a result, a rift is created between them over taxation, and the South threatened to secede multiple times.

Northern Economy

Industrial, protective Tariff helps because it causes Americans to buy their goods and it keeps Americans from buy Europe's manufactured goods

Southern Economy

Agrarian, protective tariff hurts because they are forced to buy low quality manufactured goods from the North and they cannot sell their cotton to Europe at good prices

West Economy

Mix of Agrarian and Industrial, protective tariff pays for internal improvements

Time on the Cross

Book that recorded the findings of a computer program that analyzed the data and found that slavery was physically better for people than the northern "wage slave" life

David Wilmot

Democrat from PA, tried to add to treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that any land gained from the Mexican War must not allow slavery (this violates earlier agreements). Did not get passed, but increased tension.

California

This territory wanted to become a state and wanted to be a slave free state, but this would upset the senate balance.

Stephen Douglas

This man came up with the idea of popular sovereignty to solve the issue of which states should be free and which should be slave states

popular sovereignty

the idea the new states should vote on and decide for themselves whether or not they wanted to be slave or free states.

Compromise of 1850

This allowed California to become a state, but it established the Fugitive slave law

Fugitive slave law

this law stated that if a slave escapes to the North, the north has to arrest them and send the slave back (Controversial in the North)

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin

1854 Bleeding Kansas

Bush Wackers vs the Jay Hawks in Kansas and Missouri fighting over whether or not Kansas will be for or againts slavery

Bush Wackers

pro-slavery violent group in missouri

Jay Hawks

abolitionists in Missouri, fought violently with the Bush wackers

Henry Ward Beecher

prominent Unitarian preacher in Boston, takes donations to send "Beecher's Bibles" to Kansas (the boxes contained guns, not bibles)

Charles Sumner

Senator from Massachusetts, Not a racist by 2015 standards, staunch abolitionist, gave nasty speeches deriding the South in the Senate

Preston S. Brooks

Congressman from SC, walks over to the Senate and beats Charles Sumner to a pulp with a cane. He doesn't call for a duel but instead beats him as if to say this man has no honor at all so you just have to beat him like a dog.

Dred Scott

a slave whose owners took him into states where slavery was abolished, so he sued saying that he should be free. The courts said he could not sue because he is not a citizen, but also that even if he could, property is protected so he would have lost the

Abraham Lincoln and Steven Douglas

these two people toured around debating and though A.L. lost the election, it made him a more prominent figure.

John Brown

Wanted for murder in Kansas (for hacking some guys up with a broad sword), this guy came up with a plan to start a slave rebellion. When his plan failed and he was tried and killed, the North compared him to the Christ which caused some tension in the Sou

Attack on Harper's Ferry VA

John Brown takes over an armory in VA, but the slaves don't rise up to come get weapons and so he is caught, tried essentially as a terrorist and is hung.

1860 Election

in this election, Lincoln Wins(only 40% of the popular vote but 180 electoral votes, but for most of the states in the South, Lincoln wasn't even on the ballot. This election was the 1st purely regional election.

Before Lincoln takes office

these events all take place ....... SC secedes from the Union, then the whole deep south secedes.

Jefferson Davis

elected president of the Southern Confederacy

Montgomry Alabama

This is the first capital of the Confederacy

Alexander H. Stephens

a Georgian, this man took states rights so seriously that he essentially made the south weaker against the Union because he was more interested in looking out for Georgia's interests than he was in making sure the confederacy won.

The Confederate Seal

Deo vindice (God vindicates), George Washington is in the center, which was a statement that meant the South was doing exactly what their grandfathers had done when England became abusive.

James Buchanan

historians often treat this man as if he was the worst president, because he didn't do much to stop the South. However, is it necessarily best for Presidents to exert lots of power, or is it better that they show restraint?

Lincoln's approach to the Confederate States

Lincoln refuses to recognize the Confederates, he insists on them being called rebels, he sees the US as indivisible, and he will not allow them to secede.

Fort Sumter

1st shots of the Civil War fired, in Charleston SC, Lincoln sends ships to reinforce the Fort, South fires on the Fort, no one is killed because the Federal government eventually surrenders the Fort to the South.

April 12, 1861

The start date of the Civil War

Upper South secedes

...... happened once Lincoln started calling fro troops. These states didn't want the north marching troops through their lands to force the deep south back into the Union.

Richmond VA

the second capital of the Confederate States